Abstract

For imaging applications involving biological subjects, the strong attenuation of terahertz radiation by water means that terahertz pulsed imaging is most likely to be successfully implemented in a reflection geometry. Many terahertz reflection geometry systems have a window onto which the sample is placed – this window may introduce unwanted reflections which interfere with the reflection of interest from the sample. In this paper we derive a new approach to account for the effects of these reflections and illustrate its success with improved calculations of sample optical properties.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

Shengyang Huang, Philip C. Ashworth, Kanis Wai Chi Kan, Yang Chen, Vincent P. Wallace, Yuan-ting Zhang, and Emma Pickwell-MacPherson, "Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy: erratum," Opt. Express 19, 24782-24782 (2011)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-24-24782

References

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  1. D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667-3677 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. P. U. Jepsen, J. K. Jensen, and U. Møller, "Characterization of aqueous alcohol solutions in bottles with THz reflectionspectroscopy," Opt. Express 16, 9318-9331 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Ronne, and S. R. Keiding, "Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy.," J. Mol. Liq. 101, 199-218 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Pickwell, and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
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  19. E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2004 (5)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667-3677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ronne, and S. R. Keiding, "Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy.," J. Mol. Liq. 101, 199-218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ali, S.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanagan, N.

Gupta, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T.

Helm, H.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ino, Y.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. K.

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, J. K. Jensen, and U. Møller, "Characterization of aqueous alcohol solutions in bottles with THz reflectionspectroscopy," Opt. Express 16, 9318-9331 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Ronne, and S. R. Keiding, "Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy.," J. Mol. Liq. 101, 199-218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longbottom, C.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, R. J. M.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, E.

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Møller, U.

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W. H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peiponen, K. E.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Plochocka, P.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pye, R. J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, C.

Ronne, C.

C. Ronne, and S. R. Keiding, "Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy.," J. Mol. Liq. 101, 199-218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimano, R.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y. P.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung, B. S. Y.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vartiainen, E. M.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, J. A. Zeitler, and C. Reid, "Three-dimensional imaging of optically opaque materials using nonionizing terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 3120-3133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. X. J.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. M.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeung, D. K. W.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X. X.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

Zhang, X. C.

X. C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667-3677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. T.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advances in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biopolymers (1)

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caries Res. (1)

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, "A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro," Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss (1)

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Faraday Discuss 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, "Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171-4175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma," J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Liq. (1)

C. Ronne, and S. R. Keiding, "Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy.," J. Mol. Liq. 101, 199-218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell, and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (5)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1595-1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, "Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry," Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149-160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667-3677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Y. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, S. E. Pinder, E. Provenzano, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "Terahertz spectroscopy of breast tumors," International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves and Terahertz Electronics, 2007, pp. 603-605.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram to illustrate how the terahertz beam is focused on to the quartz window and sample. The resulting reflections of the incident terahertz light are depicted in the large dashed box.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagrams to illustrate the measurement configurations for reference (a), baseline (b), water (c) and sample (d) data acquisition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flow chart to summarize the new baseline approach.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time domain waveforms of the calculated baseline and the measured baseline.

Fig 5
Fig 5

The refractive index (a) and absorption coefficient (b) of isopropanol using our proposed baseline method and the old baseline method compared to those from TPS measurements.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E air meas ( t ) = E air ( t ) + E baseline ( t )
E water meas ( t ) = E water ( t ) + E baseline ( t )
M = E water ( ω ) E air ( ω ) = ( k ˜ quartz cos θ quartz k ˜ water cos θ water ) ( k ˜ quartz cos θ quartz + k ˜ air cos θ air ) ( k ˜ quartz cos θ quartz + k ˜ water cos θ water ) ( k ˜ quartz cos θ quartz k ˜ air cos θ air )
E baseline ( ω ) = E water meas ( ω ) M · E air meas ( ω ) 1 M
E ( t ) = E meas ( t ) E baseline ( t )
FFT (Impulse function) = FFT (filter) × FFT ( E sample meas ( t ) E baseline ( t ) ) FFT ( E air meas ( t ) E baseline ( t ) )

Metrics