Abstract

We explore the polarization dependence of the nonlinear response of a planar nematic liquid crystal cell doped with 1% wt of methyl red dye. The results obtained show that the refractive index change can be switched from a positive value to a negative one as the polarization of the beam changes from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the rubbing direction. This property is exploited in a phase contrast system, where a dynamic phase filter is photoinduced in a liquid crystal cell placed in the system’s Fourier plane. Real-time contrast inversion in the resulting images is demonstrated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase contrast,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 371–378 (1934).
  2. J. Liu, J. Xu, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Phase contrast using photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4972–4975 (1995)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Joseph, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, and M. Nakashima, “Optical Fourier processing using photoinduced dichroism in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1499–1501 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Glückstad, “Phase contrast image synthesis,” Opt. Commun. 130, 225–230 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Sendhil, C. Vijayan, and M. P. Kothiyal. “Spatial phase filtering with a porphyrin derivate as phase filter in an optical image processor” Opt. Commun. 251, 292–298 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Komorowska, A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, and F. Kajzar “Self-induced nonlinear Zernike filter realized with optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator ” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5635–5641 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, All-optical image processing by means of photosensitive nonlinear liquid crystal film: edge enhancement and image addition/substraction, Opt. Letts.  26, 1140–1142 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. I.C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, and Y. Zhang, “Recent studies of optical limiting, image processing and near-infrared nonlinear optics with nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33–44 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. G. Treviño-Palacios, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos-García, and L. I. Olivos-Pérez, “Nonlinear common-path interferometer: an image processor,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5091–5095 (2003)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition on an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1–12 (1990).
  14. I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically Induced Space Charge Fields, DC Voltage, and Extraordinarily Large Nonlinearity in Dye-doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Luchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).
  17. M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  18. A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. E. Reynoso Lara, Z. Navarrete Meza, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, C. G. Treviño Palacios, E. Marti Panameño, and M. L. Arroyo Carrasco “Influence of the photoinduced focal length of a thin nonlinear material in the Z-scan technique”. Opt. Express 15, 2517Palacios2529 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. I. Jánossy and L. Szabados “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598Palacios4604 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

2005 (1)

K. Sendhil, C. Vijayan, and M. P. Kothiyal. “Spatial phase filtering with a porphyrin derivate as phase filter in an optical image processor” Opt. Commun. 251, 292–298 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Luchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

C. G. Treviño-Palacios, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos-García, and L. I. Olivos-Pérez, “Nonlinear common-path interferometer: an image processor,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5091–5095 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

I.C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, and Y. Zhang, “Recent studies of optical limiting, image processing and near-infrared nonlinear optics with nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33–44 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Komorowska, A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, and F. Kajzar “Self-induced nonlinear Zernike filter realized with optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator ” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5635–5641 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, All-optical image processing by means of photosensitive nonlinear liquid crystal film: edge enhancement and image addition/substraction, Opt. Letts.  26, 1140–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically Induced Space Charge Fields, DC Voltage, and Extraordinarily Large Nonlinearity in Dye-doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598Palacios4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1990 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition on an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1–12 (1990).

1934 (1)

F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase contrast,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 371–378 (1934).

Akkara, J. A.

Aranda, F. J.

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Joseph, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, and M. Nakashima, “Optical Fourier processing using photoinduced dichroism in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1499–1501 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Reynoso Lara, Z. Navarrete Meza, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, C. G. Treviño Palacios, E. Marti Panameño, and M. L. Arroyo Carrasco “Influence of the photoinduced focal length of a thin nonlinear material in the Z-scan technique”. Opt. Express 15, 2517Palacios2529 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldovino-Pantaleon, O.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buffety, M.

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

Chen, P. H.

Diaz, A.

I.C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, and Y. Zhang, “Recent studies of optical limiting, image processing and near-infrared nonlinear optics with nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33–44 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

I.C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, and Y. Zhang, “Recent studies of optical limiting, image processing and near-infrared nonlinear optics with nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33–44 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fabrizio, M. Di

L. Luchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Francescangeli, O.

L. Luchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Glückstad, J.

J. Glückstad, “Phase contrast image synthesis,” Opt. Commun. 130, 225–230 (1996).
[Crossref]

González, L. A.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Guenther, B. D.

Guizar-Iturbide, I.

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

Hagan, D.J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

Iturbe Castillo, M. D.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Reynoso Lara, Z. Navarrete Meza, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, C. G. Treviño Palacios, E. Marti Panameño, and M. L. Arroyo Carrasco “Influence of the photoinduced focal length of a thin nonlinear material in the Z-scan technique”. Opt. Express 15, 2517Palacios2529 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

Janossy, I.

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition on an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1–12 (1990).

Jánossy, I.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598Palacios4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

Joseph, J.

Kajzar, F.

K. Komorowska, A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, and F. Kajzar “Self-induced nonlinear Zernike filter realized with optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator ” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5635–5641 (2002).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, All-optical image processing by means of photosensitive nonlinear liquid crystal film: edge enhancement and image addition/substraction, Opt. Letts.  26, 1140–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I.C.

I.C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, and Y. Zhang, “Recent studies of optical limiting, image processing and near-infrared nonlinear optics with nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33–44 (2002).
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically Induced Space Charge Fields, DC Voltage, and Extraordinarily Large Nonlinearity in Dye-doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kimball, B. R.

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Komorowska, K.

K. Komorowska, A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, and F. Kajzar “Self-induced nonlinear Zernike filter realized with optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator ” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5635–5641 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kothapally, S. R.

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kothiyal, M. P.

K. Sendhil, C. Vijayan, and M. P. Kothiyal. “Spatial phase filtering with a porphyrin derivate as phase filter in an optical image processor” Opt. Commun. 251, 292–298 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kotova, S.

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lazo-Martínez, I.

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

Lloyd, A. L.

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition on an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1–12 (1990).

Luchetti, L.

L. Luchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marti Panameño, E.

Miniewicz, A.

K. Komorowska, A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, and F. Kajzar “Self-induced nonlinear Zernike filter realized with optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator ” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5635–5641 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakashima, M.

Naumov, A.

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

Navarrete Meza, Z.

Olivos-Pérez, L.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Olivos-Pérez, L. I.

Ortega Martinez, R.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

Parfenov, A.

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

Parka, J.

K. Komorowska, A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, and F. Kajzar “Self-induced nonlinear Zernike filter realized with optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator ” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5635–5641 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ramos Garcia, R.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ramos García, R.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ramos-Garcia, R.

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

Ramos-García, R.

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

Rao, D.V.G.L.N.

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reynoso Lara, E.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Reynoso Lara, Z. Navarrete Meza, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, C. G. Treviño Palacios, E. Marti Panameño, and M. L. Arroyo Carrasco “Influence of the photoinduced focal length of a thin nonlinear material in the Z-scan technique”. Opt. Express 15, 2517Palacios2529 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez Rosales, A.A.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez-Ortiz, M.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rück, P.

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

Said, A.A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Castillo, A.

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. G. Treviño-Palacios, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos-García, and L. I. Olivos-Pérez, “Nonlinear common-path interferometer: an image processor,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5091–5095 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sendhil, K.

K. Sendhil, C. Vijayan, and M. P. Kothiyal. “Spatial phase filtering with a porphyrin derivate as phase filter in an optical image processor” Opt. Commun. 251, 292–298 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shih, M. Y.

M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, All-optical image processing by means of photosensitive nonlinear liquid crystal film: edge enhancement and image addition/substraction, Opt. Letts.  26, 1140–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically Induced Space Charge Fields, DC Voltage, and Extraordinarily Large Nonlinearity in Dye-doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shishido, A.

M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, All-optical image processing by means of photosensitive nonlinear liquid crystal film: edge enhancement and image addition/substraction, Opt. Letts.  26, 1140–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

L. Luchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

Stryland, E.W. Van

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Szabados, L.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598Palacios4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

Treviño Palacios, C. G.

Treviño-Palacios, C. G.

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. G. Treviño-Palacios, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos-García, and L. I. Olivos-Pérez, “Nonlinear common-path interferometer: an image processor,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5091–5095 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaillancourt, Y. R.

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vijayan, C.

K. Sendhil, C. Vijayan, and M. P. Kothiyal. “Spatial phase filtering with a porphyrin derivate as phase filter in an optical image processor” Opt. Commun. 251, 292–298 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wherret, B. S.

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition on an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1–12 (1990).

Wood, W. V.

Xu, J.

Yatagai, T.

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yelleswarapu, C. S.

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase contrast,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 371–378 (1934).

Zhang, G.

Zhang, Y.

I.C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, and Y. Zhang, “Recent studies of optical limiting, image processing and near-infrared nonlinear optics with nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33–44 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. S. Yelleswarapu, S. R. Kothapally, F. J. Aranda, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Y. R. Vaillancourt, and B. R. Kimball. “Phase contrast imaging using photothermally induced phase transitions in liquid crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211116 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Komorowska, A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, and F. Kajzar “Self-induced nonlinear Zernike filter realized with optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator ” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5635–5641 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (3)

A.A. Rodriguez Rosales, R. Ortega Martinez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, E. Reynoso Lara, C. G. Treviño-Palacios, O. Baldovino-Pantaleon, R. Ramos Garcia, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Neither Kerr nor thermal nonlinear response of dye doped liquid crystal characterized by the Z-scan technique”. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  Vol 489, 9–21 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition on an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1–12 (1990).

I.C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, and Y. Zhang, “Recent studies of optical limiting, image processing and near-infrared nonlinear optics with nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33–44 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst (1)

R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Lazo-Martínez, I. Guizar-Iturbide, A. Sanchez-Castillo, M. Buffety, and P. Rück, “Colossal Nonlinear Optical Effect in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Mol.Crist. Liq. Cryst 454, 179–185 (2006).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase contrast,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 371–378 (1934).

Opt. Commun. (3)

K. Sendhil, C. Vijayan, and M. P. Kothiyal. “Spatial phase filtering with a porphyrin derivate as phase filter in an optical image processor” Opt. Commun. 251, 292–298 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Glückstad, “Phase contrast image synthesis,” Opt. Commun. 130, 225–230 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. Luchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233, 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, R. Ramos García, L. Olivos-Pérez, L. A. González, and M. Rodríguez-Ortiz “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Las. Tech. (1)

K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Kotova, A. Naumov, A. Parfenov, and T. Yatagai. “Nonlinear image self-filtering with liquid crystal spatial light modulator” Opt. Las. Tech. 30, 147–155 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Letts (1)

M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, All-optical image processing by means of photosensitive nonlinear liquid crystal film: edge enhancement and image addition/substraction, Opt. Letts.  26, 1140–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598Palacios4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (170 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (440 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Z-scan curves at 633 nm for incident polarizations of: 0° (oe-17-5-3417-i001), 30° (oe-17-5-3417-i002), 60° (oe-17-5-3417-i003) and 90° (oe-17-5-3417-i004). A 3.5 cm lens and unexpanded beam (0.8 mm diameter) from a He-Ne laser (λ=633 nm) were used. Sample thickness 20 μm and incident power of 4 mW. Lines are numerical simulations for the same input polarizations. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoinduced phase change for 0° (oe-17-5-3417-i005) and 90° (oe-17-5-3417-i006) polarization as function of the incident power

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental set-up for the phase contrast microscope. DDLC is the dye doped liquid crystal cell.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contrasted image of 100×100 μm2 objects etched on glass with a depth of 320 nm (~λ/2). The numbers on the top left corner corresponds to the angle between the rubbing direction and the polarization vector of the laser beam. For negative nonlinearity the object is bright on a dark background, for an intermediate angle of 70° the contrast almost disappears while for positive nonlinearity the contrast is reversed. (Media 1)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contrast as function of the polarization of the incident beam for different input powers of: 3.8 (oe-17-5-3417-i007), 2.54 (oe-17-5-3417-i008) and 1.52 (oe-17-5-3417-i009) mW for a phase object of λ/2 thickness. Continuous lines represent the contrast obtained from our model for the same power level.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Real time images of biological specimens (paramecium) obtained by the nonlinear phase microscope. The λ/2 plate was rotated in order to improve the contrast. The size of the living organisms is ~75 μm. (Media 2).

Equations (4)

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η = X η C + ( 1 X ) η T
X = X ord 1 + g cos 2 Ψ 1 + h cos 2 Ψ
ΔΦ = X Δ Φ N + ( 1 X ) Δ Φ P
ΔΦ Cos 2 ΨΔ Φ N + Sin 2 ΨΔ Φ P

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