Abstract

Very compact GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides with propagation loss as low as 0.9 dB/cm at λ=1.55 μm were demonstrated using substrate removal and evaporated Si for index loading. Loss components were identified and minimized through process and waveguide design. Process induced roughness contributed significantly to overall propagation loss. Therefore a low damage process in addition to proper waveguide design is needed for loss minimization.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "Highly Efficient GaAs/AlGaAs Substrate Removed Nanowire Phase Modulators Based on Current Injection," in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMA2.
  3. J. Shin, Y. C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical Multimode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging - Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A Theoretical-Analysis of Scattering Loss from Planar Optical Wave-Guides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "Low-Loss Ultra-Compact GaAs/AlGaAs Substrate Removed Waveguides," in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper IWE3.

2008

J. Shin, Y. C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical Multimode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging - Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A Theoretical-Analysis of Scattering Loss from Planar Optical Wave-Guides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

J. Shin, Y. C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

J. Shin, Y. C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ducci, S.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A Theoretical-Analysis of Scattering Loss from Planar Optical Wave-Guides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lanco, L.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R. M.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A Theoretical-Analysis of Scattering Loss from Planar Optical Wave-Guides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical Multimode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging - Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

J. Shin, Y. C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical Multimode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging - Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

Spector, S. J.

Sukumaran, G.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Shin, Y. C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical Multimode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging - Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A Theoretical-Analysis of Scattering Loss from Planar Optical Wave-Guides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "Highly Efficient GaAs/AlGaAs Substrate Removed Nanowire Phase Modulators Based on Current Injection," in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMA2.

J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, and N. Dagli, "Low-Loss Ultra-Compact GaAs/AlGaAs Substrate Removed Waveguides," in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper IWE3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross sectional schematic of the substrate removed waveguide (not to scale) and (b) fundamental TE mode power profile of 1.0 μm wide waveguide with Si loading.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top down SEM view of optical waveguide fabricated by (a) etching Al0.3Ga0.7As defined by stepper (σ = 20 nm) and (b) lifting off Si defined by electron beam lithography (σ = 4 nm). (c) and (d) shows the cross sectional SEM view for each case.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

(a) Calculated optical power overlap with interfaces, and (b) calculated and measured propagation loss as a function of waveguide width. Open and crossed squares are measurements for long and short immersion time in the photoresist stripper 1165. Dashed and solid curves are calculations for each case with σ values in the legend.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Root Mean Square Roughness σ and Autocorrelation Length Lc of Surfaces shown in Fig. 3(a).

Equations (2)

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α i = Γ i ( n c i 2 n s i 2 ) 2 k 0 3 8 π n c i S i
α tot ( d B ) = α L 10 log R = 10 log ( K T + 1 K T 1 )

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