Abstract

We demonstrate a novel electro-optic polymer modulator design which shows a record low optical insertion loss of 5.7 dB at 1550 nm. The modulator consists of a high numerical aperture passive waveguide which is converted to a strip-loaded electro-optic polymer waveguide through refractive index tapers. The device is fabricated using all wet-etch techniques which results in low excess loss from roughness created during fabrication and, employs new low loss passive sol-gel materials. The fabricated device also shows a low half-wave voltage of 2.8 V.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, "Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calas, S.

M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C. T.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Etienne, P.

M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kathaperumal, M.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, Y.

M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nedelec, J. M.

M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oubaha, M.

M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sempere, R.

M. Oubaha, P. Etienne, S. Calas, R. Sempere, J. M. Nedelec, Y. Moreau, "Spectroscopic characterization of sol-gel organo-siloxane materials synthesized from aliphatic and aromatic alcoxysilanes," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 351, 2122-2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
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Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Transversely tapered hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. Luo, A. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, "Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, Y. Enami, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Electrooptic polymer modulator with single-mode to multimode waveguide transitions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1051-1053 (2008).
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Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
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Other (2)

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, "Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross-section of the passive section waveguide (b) cross-section of a single arm of active section c) Longitudinal cross-section overlaid on a 3-D BPM simulation of the optical intensity propagation through the device for a straight channel waveguide, the white arrows indicate the direction of propagation of the optical mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Mode field diameter as a function of Δn for an EO polymer index of 1.61 and a thickness of 1.1 μm. (b) EO polymer thickness that maintains an overlap integral of 0.7 as a function of EO polymer index; the mode field diameter was between 7.4–7.1 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Back illuminated optical microscope image of the cross section of a back filled sol-gel waveguide. It can be seen that the core layer planarizes with a thin overflow layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The unpoled TM index of the EO polymer layer along the length of the device set over a cartoon top view of the Mach-Zehnder waveguide, a close-up view of the index taper (inset).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Simulated mode profile of the passive section (b) simulated mode profile of the active section (c) measured mode in the passive section (d) measured mode in the active section.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A 2.8 volt Vπ measurement. The top trace is the optical signal with a vertical axis of 200 mV/division and horizontal axis of 200 μs/division, the bottom trace is the electrical signal which has a vertical axis of 5 V/division and horizontal axis of 200 μs/division.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Optical Insertion Loss for various Input Fibers

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