Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate light beam coupling between a single-mode fiber (SMF) and a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HN-PCF) based on the fused biconical tapering (FBT) technique. In our experiment, a standard SMF is pre-tapered to match its propagation constant to that of a HN-PCF. In order to remove the condensation in the air holes, the temperature is increased gradually to preheat the fibers. An appropriate level of hydrogen flow is administered to avoid the air-hole collapse. As a result, coupling ratio exceeding 90% between the SMF and HN-PCF is achieved. This technique avoids back Fresnel reflection, mode-field diameter (MFD) mismatch and fiber-core misalignment, bubble generation and air-hole collapse in the interface fusion splice.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (6)

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, G. Kai, Z. Wang, T. Sun, C. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, “Transformation of a transmission mechanism by filling the holes of normal silica-guiding microstructure fibers with nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2372–2374 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. -W. Bay, M. Yan, J. Hu, J. Hao, C. Lu, “Strain-insensitive and high-temperature long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30, 367–369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883–888 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118–120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (8)

T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11, 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-11-20-2589.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wadsworth, R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, P. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fibre laser,” Opt. Express 11, 48–53 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-1-48.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. S. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, “Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1719–1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philip Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen, M. D. Nielsen, J. R. Folkenberg, “Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 393–395 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, “Microstructured fiber splicing,” Opt. Express 11, 3412–3417 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-25-3412.
[PubMed]

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, “An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942–944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1365–1370 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-12-1365.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “All-optical switching based on cross-phase modulation in microstructure fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Engin. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, “Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1452–1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

H. Y. Tam, “Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard single mode fibres and erbium-doped fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1597–1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.327–328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afshar V., S.

Andrés, M. V.

Andrés, P.

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

Bao, X.

Bay, H. -W.

Belardi, W.

Birks, T. A.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. Russell, D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bise, R. T.

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118–120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

T. T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. S. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, “Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1719–1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11, 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-11-20-2589.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, P. M.

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bourliaguet, B.

Bouwmans, G.

Broeng, J.

T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11, 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-11-20-2589.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. S. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, “Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1719–1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, J. P.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chong, J. H.

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1365–1370 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-12-1365.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, “An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942–944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Croteau, A.

Demokan, M. S.

Dong, X.

Émond, F.

Eom, J. B.

J. B. Eom, D.S. Moon, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “Fabrication and transmission characteristics of couplers using photonic crystal fibers,” OFC2002, 465–466 (2002)

Fajardo, J. C.

J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, Q. Wu, “Splice joint and process for joining a microstructured optical fiber and a conventional optical fiber,” U.S. Patent 20030081915A1 (2003).

Ferrando, A.

Fiorentino, M.

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “All-optical switching based on cross-phase modulation in microstructure fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

Gallagher, M. T.

J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, Q. Wu, “Splice joint and process for joining a microstructured optical fiber and a conventional optical fiber,” U.S. Patent 20030081915A1 (2003).

Gander, M. J.

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grote, Norbert

Norbert Grote, Herbert Venghaus, Fibre Optic Communication devices ISBN 3-540-66977-9 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidlberg New York).

Hao, J.

Hermann, D.

Hermann, D. S.

T. T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. S. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, “Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1719–1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.327–328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Engin. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoo, Y. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Engin. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Jin, W.

Joly, N. Y.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Kakarantzas, G.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.327–328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883–888 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, B. Ha Lee, “Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1194–1196 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knabe, K.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, “Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1452–1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. Russell, D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

Kumar, P.

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “All-optical switching based on cross-phase modulation in microstructure fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, R. G.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.327–328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, T.

Larsen, T. T.

T. T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. S. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, “Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1719–1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883–888 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Eom, D.S. Moon, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “Fabrication and transmission characteristics of couplers using photonic crystal fibers,” OFC2002, 465–466 (2002)

Lee, B. Ha

Lee, J. H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Lu, C.

Macpherson, W. N.

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B.

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mcbride,

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miret, J. J.

Monro, T. M.

Moon, D.S.

J. B. Eom, D.S. Moon, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “Fabrication and transmission characteristics of couplers using photonic crystal fibers,” OFC2002, 465–466 (2002)

Mortensen, N. A.

Nielsen, M. D.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883–888 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Eom, D.S. Moon, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “Fabrication and transmission characteristics of couplers using photonic crystal fibers,” OFC2002, 465–466 (2002)

Paek, U.-C.

Paré, C.

Park, B. H.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883–888 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R.

Petropoulos, P.

Proulx, A.

Ranka, J. K.

Rao, M. K.

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, “An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942–944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1365–1370 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-12-1365.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, W. H.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, “Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1452–1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P.

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, “Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1452–1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, Philip

Philip Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

Salgado, H. M.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “All-optical switching based on cross-phase modulation in microstructure fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. -W. Bay, M. Yan, J. Hu, J. Hao, C. Lu, “Strain-insensitive and high-temperature long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30, 367–369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, “An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942–944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, E.

Stentz, A. J.

Sun, T.

Tam, H. Y.

H. Y. Tam, “Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard single mode fibres and erbium-doped fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1597–1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thapa, R.

Vallée, R.

Venghaus, Herbert

Norbert Grote, Herbert Venghaus, Fibre Optic Communication devices ISBN 3-540-66977-9 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidlberg New York).

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, “Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1452–1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, D. N.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Engin. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Washburn, B. R.

Windeler, R. S.

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Engin. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “All-optical switching based on cross-phase modulation in microstructure fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, Q. Wu, “Splice joint and process for joining a microstructured optical fiber and a conventional optical fiber,” U.S. Patent 20030081915A1 (2003).

Xiao, L.

Xiao, L. M.

Xue, L.

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118–120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Yuan, S.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, W.

Zhao, C.-L.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. -W. Bay, M. Yan, J. Hu, J. Hao, C. Lu, “Strain-insensitive and high-temperature long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30, 367–369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, “An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942–944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zou, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. S. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, “Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1719–1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, “Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1452–1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Tam, “Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard single mode fibres and erbium-doped fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1597–1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, P. Shum, “An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942–944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118–120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “All-optical switching based on cross-phase modulation in microstructure fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 883–888 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, H. M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. N. Macpherson, M. J. Gander, Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Engin. (1)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Engin. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

W. Wadsworth, R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, P. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fibre laser,” Opt. Express 11, 48–53 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-1-48.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, P. Andrés, J. J. Miret, M. V. Andrés, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 687–697 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-9-13-687.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, “Highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation in a telecommunication window,” Opt. Express 12, 2027–2032 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-12-10-2027.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11, 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-11-20-2589.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, “Microstructured fiber splicing,” Opt. Express 11, 3412–3417 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-25-3412.
[PubMed]

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, “Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells,” Opt. Express 14, 9576–9583 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-14-21-9576.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1365–1370 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-12-1365.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (12)

H. Kim, J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, B. Ha Lee, “Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1194–1196 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.327–328 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, “Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single-mode fibers by repeated arc discharges,” Opt. Lett. 32, 115–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, D. J. Richardson, “2R-regenerative all-optical switch based on a highly nonlinear holey fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1233–1235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. Russell, D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen, M. D. Nielsen, J. R. Folkenberg, “Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 393–395 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zou, X. Bao, S. Afshar V., L. Chen, “Dependence of the Brillouin frequency shift on strain and temperature in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1485–1487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, G. Kai, Z. Wang, T. Sun, C. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, “Transformation of a transmission mechanism by filling the holes of normal silica-guiding microstructure fibers with nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2372–2374 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. -W. Bay, M. Yan, J. Hu, J. Hao, C. Lu, “Strain-insensitive and high-temperature long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30, 367–369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Letters (1)

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Letters 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Philip Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Norbert Grote, Herbert Venghaus, Fibre Optic Communication devices ISBN 3-540-66977-9 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidlberg New York).

J. B. Eom, D.S. Moon, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, “Fabrication and transmission characteristics of couplers using photonic crystal fibers,” OFC2002, 465–466 (2002)

J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, Q. Wu, “Splice joint and process for joining a microstructured optical fiber and a conventional optical fiber,” U.S. Patent 20030081915A1 (2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The model of coupling between tapered waveguides

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The experimental setup

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Power conversion in the SMFs with the taper length increasing.

Fig.4.
Fig.4.

The Transverse section of the HN-PCF

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The coupling result of the SMF to the HN-PCF directly with the parameter as shown in Table 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The melting process schematic of the HN-PCF and the SMF

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The power transfer varies with the taper length in the coupling process between SMF and HN-PCF based on FBT technique.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The coupling ratio varies versus wavelength in the range of 1530~1610nm. The inset is the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the cross section of the fused PCF.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The parameters of the coupler station

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = 20 log ( 2 ω PCF ω SMF ( ω PCF 2 + ω SMF 2 ) )
P 1 = P 0 ( 1 K c δ eff Sin 2 ( δ eff z ) )
P 2 = P 0 K c δ eff 2 Sin 2 ( δ eff z )
V collapse = γ 2 η
Si O Si + H 2 O 2 Si OH

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