Abstract

We have designed an original approach for efficient Second Harmonic Generation of tailored V-shape benzo[b]thiophene molecular systems enabling versatile and flexible one-step, dry and technologically friendly thin film processing. The designed moieties show χ (2) values at least as high as the reference LiNbO3 single crystal, without poling processing and matching the constrains of integrated optical configuration for nonlinear optical devices. This may open the way to a new class of organic materials exploitable for photonic applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. See the recent Strategic Research Agenda in Photonics "Toward a Bright Future for Europe," www.Photonics21.org.
  2. "Harnessing Light" study (National Research Council, USA, 1998).
  3. Among many excellent publications and books see for example:J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, "Hyperpolarizabilities of nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment," J. Chem. Phys 66, 2664-2667 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. "Nonlinear Optical Porperites of Organic and Polymeric Materials," David J. Williams ed., ACS symposium series 233, ACS, Washington D.C (1983).
  5. M. C. Petty, Langmuir-Blodgett Films, An Introduction, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996).
  6. Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. R. Dalton, "Nonlinear Optical Polymeric Materials," in Advances in Polymer Science 158, (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001), p. 1-86.
  8. D. Gonin and C. Noël, Liquid Crystalline Polymers, in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. Swalen, eds, (Gordon & Breach Sc. Publ., Amsterdam 1996), pp. 221-288.
  9. J. Le Moigne, in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics F. Kajzar and J. Swalen, eds., (Gordon & Breach Sc. Publ., Amsterdam 1996), pp. 289-327.
  10. A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Kajzar, Y. Okada-Shudo, C. Meritt, and Z. Kafafi, "Second- and third-order non-linear optical properties of multilayered structures and composites of C60 with electron donors," Synth. Met. 117, 189-193 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, and R. G. Petschek, "Second-order nonlinear optical processes in non-polar chiral materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 18, 1858-1865 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Ostroverkhov, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer and R. J. Twieg, "Lambda-Shaped Chromophores for Chiral Nonlinear Optical Materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 109-115 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Watanabe, H. Yamammoto, T. Hosomin, and S. Miyata, in Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, and P. Prasad, eds., (Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, 1991).
  16. G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. BothV-BT 1 and V-BT2 have been demonstrated to be efficient light emitters in thin film OLEDs devices made by spin coating. See: M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. Della Sala, D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, R. Cingolani and G. Gigli, "New branched thiophene-based oligomers for bright organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 15, 2060-2063 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Swalen and F. Kajzar, Introduction, in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. Swalen, eds., (Gordon & Breach Sc. Publ., Amsterdam 1996), pp. 1-85

2005 (1)

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

BothV-BT 1 and V-BT2 have been demonstrated to be efficient light emitters in thin film OLEDs devices made by spin coating. See: M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. Della Sala, D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, R. Cingolani and G. Gigli, "New branched thiophene-based oligomers for bright organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 15, 2060-2063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, and R. G. Petschek, "Second-order nonlinear optical processes in non-polar chiral materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 18, 1858-1865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroverkhov, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer and R. J. Twieg, "Lambda-Shaped Chromophores for Chiral Nonlinear Optical Materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 109-115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, Y. Okada-Shudo, C. Meritt, and Z. Kafafi, "Second- and third-order non-linear optical properties of multilayered structures and composites of C60 with electron donors," Synth. Met. 117, 189-193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Among many excellent publications and books see for example:J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, "Hyperpolarizabilities of nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment," J. Chem. Phys 66, 2664-2667 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anni, M.

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Annoni, E.

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbarella, G.

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beverina, L.

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bongini, A.

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borer, Th.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Both,

BothV-BT 1 and V-BT2 have been demonstrated to be efficient light emitters in thin film OLEDs devices made by spin coating. See: M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. Della Sala, D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, R. Cingolani and G. Gigli, "New branched thiophene-based oligomers for bright organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 15, 2060-2063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

Among many excellent publications and books see for example:J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, "Hyperpolarizabilities of nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment," J. Chem. Phys 66, 2664-2667 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ermer, S

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Facchetti, A.

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favaretto, L.

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z.

F. Kajzar, Y. Okada-Shudo, C. Meritt, and Z. Kafafi, "Second- and third-order non-linear optical properties of multilayered structures and composites of C60 with electron donors," Synth. Met. 117, 189-193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar, Y. Okada-Shudo, C. Meritt, and Z. Kafafi, "Second- and third-order non-linear optical properties of multilayered structures and composites of C60 with electron donors," Synth. Met. 117, 189-193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krdmer, P.

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Küpfer, M.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Leung, D. S.

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Lovejoy, S. M.

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzeo, M.

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McComb, I.-H.

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Meritt, C.

F. Kajzar, Y. Okada-Shudo, C. Meritt, and Z. Kafafi, "Second- and third-order non-linear optical properties of multilayered structures and composites of C60 with electron donors," Synth. Met. 117, 189-193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morone, M.

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moylan, C. R

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Okada-Shudo, Y.

F. Kajzar, Y. Okada-Shudo, C. Meritt, and Z. Kafafi, "Second- and third-order non-linear optical properties of multilayered structures and composites of C60 with electron donors," Synth. Met. 117, 189-193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhov, V.

V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, and R. G. Petschek, "Second-order nonlinear optical processes in non-polar chiral materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 18, 1858-1865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroverkhov, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer and R. J. Twieg, "Lambda-Shaped Chromophores for Chiral Nonlinear Optical Materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 109-115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oudar, J. L.

Among many excellent publications and books see for example:J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, "Hyperpolarizabilities of nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment," J. Chem. Phys 66, 2664-2667 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pagani, G. A.

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petschek, R. G.

V. Ostroverkhov, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer and R. J. Twieg, "Lambda-Shaped Chromophores for Chiral Nonlinear Optical Materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 109-115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, and R. G. Petschek, "Second-order nonlinear optical processes in non-polar chiral materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 18, 1858-1865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, and R. G. Petschek, "Second-order nonlinear optical processes in non-polar chiral materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 18, 1858-1865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroverkhov, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer and R. J. Twieg, "Lambda-Shaped Chromophores for Chiral Nonlinear Optical Materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 109-115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

V. Ostroverkhov, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer and R. J. Twieg, "Lambda-Shaped Chromophores for Chiral Nonlinear Optical Materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 109-115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, R.

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Zahir, S.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Zanelli, A.

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, G. Gigli, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni and A. Bongini, "V-shaped thiophene based oligomers with improved electroluminescence properties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 664-670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

BothV-BT 1 and V-BT2 have been demonstrated to be efficient light emitters in thin film OLEDs devices made by spin coating. See: M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. Della Sala, D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, A. Zanelli, R. Cingolani and G. Gigli, "New branched thiophene-based oligomers for bright organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 15, 2060-2063 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Ostroverkhov, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer and R. J. Twieg, "Lambda-Shaped Chromophores for Chiral Nonlinear Optical Materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 109-115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys (1)

Among many excellent publications and books see for example:J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, "Hyperpolarizabilities of nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment," J. Chem. Phys 66, 2664-2667 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B. (1)

V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, and R. G. Petschek, "Second-order nonlinear optical processes in non-polar chiral materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 18, 1858-1865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

JACS (1)

C. R Moylan, S Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, I.-H. McComb, D. S. Leung, R. Wortmann, P. Krdmer, R. J. Twieg, "Dicyanomethylene)pyran derivatives with C2v symmetry: An unusual class of nonlinear optical chromophores," JACS 118, 12950-12955 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. Facchetti, E. Annoni, L. Beverina, L. Beverina, M. Morone, P. Zhu, T. J. Marks and G. A. Pagani," Very large electro-optic responses in H-bonded heteroaromatic films grown by physical vapour deposition," Nat. Mater. 3, 910-917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (1)

F. Kajzar, Y. Okada-Shudo, C. Meritt, and Z. Kafafi, "Second- and third-order non-linear optical properties of multilayered structures and composites of C60 with electron donors," Synth. Met. 117, 189-193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Ch. Bosshard, M. Küpfer, M. Flörsheimer, Th. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, "Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques," Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198-201 (1992)]
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

L. R. Dalton, "Nonlinear Optical Polymeric Materials," in Advances in Polymer Science 158, (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001), p. 1-86.

D. Gonin and C. Noël, Liquid Crystalline Polymers, in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. Swalen, eds, (Gordon & Breach Sc. Publ., Amsterdam 1996), pp. 221-288.

J. Le Moigne, in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics F. Kajzar and J. Swalen, eds., (Gordon & Breach Sc. Publ., Amsterdam 1996), pp. 289-327.

"Nonlinear Optical Porperites of Organic and Polymeric Materials," David J. Williams ed., ACS symposium series 233, ACS, Washington D.C (1983).

M. C. Petty, Langmuir-Blodgett Films, An Introduction, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996).

See the recent Strategic Research Agenda in Photonics "Toward a Bright Future for Europe," www.Photonics21.org.

"Harnessing Light" study (National Research Council, USA, 1998).

J. Swalen and F. Kajzar, Introduction, in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. Swalen, eds., (Gordon & Breach Sc. Publ., Amsterdam 1996), pp. 1-85

T. Watanabe, H. Yamammoto, T. Hosomin, and S. Miyata, in Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, and P. Prasad, eds., (Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: Molecular structure of 2,3-Bis-(2,2’bithiophen-5-yl)-benzo[b]thiophene1,1-dioxide (V-BT1) and (right) of 2,3-Bis-(3,3’-dicyclohexyl-[2,2’]bithiophenyl-5-yl)-benzo[b]thiophene1,1-dioxide (V-BT2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

One-photon absorption spectra of 2,3-Bis-(2,2’bithiophen-5-yl)-benzo[b]thiophene1,1-dioxide (V-BT1, red-circles) and of 2,3-Bis-(3,3’-dicyclohexyl-[2,2’]bithiophenyl-5-yl)-benzo[b]thiophene1,1-dioxide (V-BT2, blue-line) thin films. The films are vacuum deposited and are 80nm thick. The vertical line marks the expected SHG signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Incidence angle dependence of SHG intensity for V-BT2 thin film at different fundamental harmonic beam polarization configurations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The variation of χ (2)xxz (oe-17-04-2557-i001) and χ (2)zzz (oe-17-04-2557-i002) versus the films thickness for films of 2,3-Bis-(3,3’-dicyclohexyl-[2,2’]bithiophenyl-5-yl)-benzo[b]thiophene1,1-dioxide (V-BT2). The data are affected by a 10% error bar.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reference frame used for studied thin films.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Second order NLO susceptibilities of studied molecules thin films, made by vacuum sublimation technique.

Equations (4)

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I 2 ω s p P sp ( ω , 2 ω , θ ω s , θ ω s , χ XXZ ( 2 ) ) 2 I ω 2
P sp ( ω , 2 ω , θ ω s , θ ω s , χ sp ( 2 ) ) = χ XXZ ( 2 ) sin 2 θ ω s cos θ 2 ω s
I 2 ω p p P pp ( ω , 2 ω , θ ω p , θ ω p , χ XXZ ( 2 ) , χ ZZZ ( 2 ) ) 2 I ω 2
P pp ( ω , 2 ω , θ ω s , θ ω s , χ XX Z ( 2 ) , χ ZZZ ( 2 ) ) = χ ZZZ ( 2 ) sin 2 θ ω p sin θ 2 ω p + χ XX Z ( 2 ) cos θ ω p ( cos θ ω p + 2 sin θ ω p cos θ 2 ω p )

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