Abstract

Mode-locked sub-picosecond operation of Yb-, Er- and Tm:Ho-doped fiber lasers operating at 1.05 μm, 1.56 μm and 1.99 μm, respectively, is demonstrated using the same sample carbon nanotube-based saturable absorber mirror. A mesh of single-walled carbon nanotubes was deposited on an Ag-mirror using a one-step dry-transfer contact press method to combine broadband saturable absorption and high reflectance properties. The novel fabrication method of the polymer-free absorber and device parameters determined using nonlinear reflectivity measurement are described in detail. To our knowledge the observed operation bandwidth of ~1 μm is the broadest reported to date for a single carbon nanotube-based saturable absorber.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, "Mode-locked 1.93 μm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber," Opt. Lett. 33, 1336-1338 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, "Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers," Int. J. Mater. Form. 1, 107-112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor," Chem. Eng. Sci. 61, 4393-4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, L. Hu, and G. Grüner, "A method of printing carbon nanotube thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 123109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, Y. Ohtsuka, R. Sen, S. Suzuki, and Y. Achiba, "Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotubes," Carbon 38, 1691-1697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1980

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Dienes, "Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267-269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, Y. Ohtsuka, R. Sen, S. Suzuki, and Y. Achiba, "Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotubes," Carbon 38, 1691-1697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Anisimov, A. S.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

Brown, D. P.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor," Chem. Eng. Sci. 61, 4393-4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, A. I.

Cho, W. B.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curley, P. F.

Dianov, E. M.

Dienes, A.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Dienes, "Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267-269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, "Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers," Int. J. Mater. Form. 1, 107-112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grüner, G.

Y. Zhou, L. Hu, and G. Grüner, "A method of printing carbon nanotube thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 123109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helistö, P.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holopainen, S.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Y. Zhou, L. Hu, and G. Grüner, "A method of printing carbon nanotube thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 123109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Dienes, "Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267-269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jablonski, M.

Jiang, H.

A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor," Chem. Eng. Sci. 61, 4393-4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kataura, H.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, Y. Ohtsuka, R. Sen, S. Suzuki, and Y. Achiba, "Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotubes," Carbon 38, 1691-1697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, E. I.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor," Chem. Eng. Sci. 61, 4393-4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khriachtchev, L.

A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor," Chem. Eng. Sci. 61, 4393-4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Konov, V. I.

Krausz, F.

Kumazawa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, Y. Ohtsuka, R. Sen, S. Suzuki, and Y. Achiba, "Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotubes," Carbon 38, 1691-1697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lobach, A. S.

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maniwa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, Y. Ohtsuka, R. Sen, S. Suzuki, and Y. Achiba, "Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotubes," Carbon 38, 1691-1697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

Moisala, A.

A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor," Chem. Eng. Sci. 61, 4393-4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Nasibulin, A. G.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor," Chem. Eng. Sci. 61, 4393-4402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Obraztsova, E. D.

Ohtsuka, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, Y. Ohtsuka, R. Sen, S. Suzuki, and Y. Achiba, "Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotubes," Carbon 38, 1691-1697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ollikainen, A.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Penttilä, J. S.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, "Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers," Int. J. Mater. Form. 1, 107-112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pikhitsa, P. V.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, "Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers," Int. J. Mater. Form. 1, 107-112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruokolainen, J.

A. G. Nasibulin, A. Ollikainen, A. S. Anisimov, D. P. Brown, P. V. Pikhitsa, S. Holopainen, J. S. Penttilä, P. Helistö, J. Ruokolainen, M. Choi, and E. I. Kauppinen, "Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes into polymer films by thermo-compression," Chem. Eng. J. 136, 409-413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, "Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers," Int. J. Mater. Form. 1, 107-112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sen, R.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, Y. Ohtsuka, R. Sen, S. Suzuki, and Y. Achiba, "Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotubes," Carbon 38, 1691-1697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Dienes, "Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267-269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Solodyankin, M. A.

Spielmann, Ch.

Steinmeyer, G.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, "Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid state laser mode-locking near 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM micrograph of the SWCNT-film. The inset shows high-resolution TEM-image of the sample. The tube diameter ranges from 1.2 nm to 1.8 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical transmission spectrum of the SWCNT-film. Ripples in absorption near 2000 nm wavelengths are caused by strong absorption of the PET-substrate. (b) Nonlinear reflectivity of the absorber measured at 1560 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the experimental fiber laser setup used in the study. Active fibers acting as gain medium were doped with Yb, Er or Tm:Ho rare-earth materials. Yb-fiber laser requires the grating pair to achieve the soliton pulse regime.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Pulse spectrum of the Yb-fiber laser. (b) Autocorrelation trace and sech2-fit giving a pulse width of ~0.7 ps. The inset shows a typical oscilloscope picture of the generated pulse train.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical spectra of the Er- (a) and Tm:Ho-doped (b) fiber lasers. The corresponding autocorrelation traces with Sech2-fittings are shown as insets. The pulse widths for the Er- and Tm:Ho-doped fiber lasers are 0.44 ps and 1.0 ps, respectively. The 3-dB spectral widths are 6.0 and 5.0 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the laser output characteristics.

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