Abstract

We report white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) combining vacuum deposited blue electrophosphorescent devices with red surface color conversion layers (CCLs). With an iridium (III) [bis(4,6-di-fluoropheny)-pyridinato-N,C2’] picolinate (FIrpic) doped 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-dimethyl-biphenyl (CDBP) blue electrophosphorescent light emitting layer, and an appropriate red surface CCL containing 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB), the WOLED generate high efficiency and very pure white light with a peak luminous (power) efficiency of 18.1 cd/A (9.5 lm/W) and CIE coordinates of (0.32, 0.31), very close to the equal-energy white, respectively. Moreover, the output spectra and CIE coordinates of the WOLED show no significant change at a wide range of current density.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

S. L. Tao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, "Efficient blue and white organic light-emitting devices based on a singlebipolar emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, "Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Lee, J. S. Lin, M. T. Chu, and M. R. Tseng, "Low-voltage, high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, "Efficient white OLEDs employing phosphorescent sensitization," J. Display Technol. 3, 193-199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, "A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer," Opt. Express 15, 608-615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Kimura, T. Saito, K. Sakurai, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, and Y. Taniguchi, "Study of color-conversion-materials in chromatic-stability white organic light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 14422-14430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, J. W. Ma, S. W. Hwang, P. C. Yeh, and C. H. Chen, "White p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with high power efficiency and stable color," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. F. Xie, L. T. Zhang, and S. Y. Liu, "White organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag black cathode," Opt. Express 14, 10819-10824 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ide, T. Komoda, and J. Kido, "Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and its application to lighting devices," Proc. SPIE 6333, 63330M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma "White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510-173512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. W. D’Andrade, and S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mater. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, "Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5403-5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, and H. Kita, "Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting device: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644-4648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, "White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter llayer doped with three fluorescent dyes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815-817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blochwitz, J.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644-4648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644-4648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, "Efficient white OLEDs employing phosphorescent sensitization," J. Display Technol. 3, 193-199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, J. W. Ma, S. W. Hwang, P. C. Yeh, and C. H. Chen, "White p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with high power efficiency and stable color," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V. E.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, N.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M. T.

M. T. Lee, J. S. Lin, M. T. Chu, and M. R. Tseng, "Low-voltage, high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, and S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mater. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eom, S. H.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, T.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade, and S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mater. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644-4648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foust, D. F.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, T.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644-4648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grazulevicius, J. V.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigalevicius, S.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F. F.

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma "White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510-173512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C. M.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M. H.

M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, J. W. Ma, S. W. Hwang, P. C. Yeh, and C. H. Chen, "White p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with high power efficiency and stable color," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. H.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hongawa, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, "White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter llayer doped with three fluorescent dyes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815-817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. P.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. F.

M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, J. W. Ma, S. W. Hwang, P. C. Yeh, and C. H. Chen, "White p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with high power efficiency and stable color," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. W.

M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, J. W. Ma, S. W. Hwang, P. C. Yeh, and C. H. Chen, "White p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with high power efficiency and stable color," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

Ide, N.

N. Ide, T. Komoda, and J. Kido, "Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and its application to lighting devices," Proc. SPIE 6333, 63330M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, T.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, and H. Kita, "Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawaguchi, K.

Kido, J.

N. Ide, T. Komoda, and J. Kido, "Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and its application to lighting devices," Proc. SPIE 6333, 63330M (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, "White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter llayer doped with three fluorescent dyes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815-817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. Y.

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. K.

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kita, H.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, and H. Kita, "Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komoda, T.

N. Ide, T. Komoda, and J. Kido, "Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and its application to lighting devices," Proc. SPIE 6333, 63330M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

S. L. Tao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, "Efficient blue and white organic light-emitting devices based on a singlebipolar emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. T.

M. T. Lee, J. S. Lin, M. T. Chu, and M. R. Tseng, "Low-voltage, high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

S. L. Tao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, "Efficient blue and white organic light-emitting devices based on a singlebipolar emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lei, G.

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, "Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5403-5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, "Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Li, C. N.

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Q.

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. S.

M. T. Lee, J. S. Lin, M. T. Chu, and M. R. Tseng, "Low-voltage, high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

Liu, S. Y.

W. F. Xie, L. T. Zhang, and S. Y. Liu, "White organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag black cathode," Opt. Express 14, 10819-10824 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. H.

M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting device: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. J.

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, D. G.

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma "White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510-173512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. W.

M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, J. W. Ma, S. W. Hwang, P. C. Yeh, and C. H. Chen, "White p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with high power efficiency and stable color," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matoliukstyte, A.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, "White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter llayer doped with three fluorescent dyes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815-817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nollau, A.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okuyama, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, "White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter llayer doped with three fluorescent dyes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815-817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. H.

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, "Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5403-5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, "Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

Sakurai, K.

Schwartz, G.

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, "Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. H.

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. C.

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simokaitiene, J.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting device: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, H. C.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuri, Y.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, and H. Kita, "Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Tao, S. L.

S. L. Tao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, "Efficient blue and white organic light-emitting devices based on a singlebipolar emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644-4648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, and H. Kita, "Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. H.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A. G.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p-n junctions: accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644-4648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, M. R.

M. T. Lee, J. S. Lin, M. T. Chu, and M. R. Tseng, "Low-voltage, high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, "Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, "Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5403-5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wei, B.

Werner, W.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, "Efficient white OLEDs employing phosphorescent sensitization," J. Display Technol. 3, 193-199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. F.

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. F.

Xie, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xie, J. S. Huang, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Q. Li, and J. C. Shen, "White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 641-643 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J. G.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P. C.

M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, J. W. Ma, S. W. Hwang, P. C. Yeh, and C. H. Chen, "White p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with high power efficiency and stable color," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, S. J.

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. H.

Yoon, S. S.

J. H. Seo, I. H. Park, G. Y. Kim, K. H. Lee, M. K. Kim, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, "Hybrid spacer for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zachau, M.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506-113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. T.

Zhang, X. H.

S. L. Tao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and X. H. Zhang, "Efficient blue and white organic light-emitting devices based on a singlebipolar emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

B. W. D’Andrade, and S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mater. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Tsai, Y. H. Hong, C. H. Chang, H. C. Su, C. C. Wu, S. Grigalevicius, A. Matoliukstyte, J. Simokaitiene, J. V. Grazulevicius, and C. P. Hsu, "3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as effective host materials for efficient blue organic electrophosphorescence," Adv. Mater. 19, 862-866 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yeh, M. F. Wu, C. T. Chen, Y. H. Song, Y. Chi, M. H. Ho, S. F. Hsu, and C. H. Chen, "New dopant and host materials for blue-light-emitting phosphorescent organic electroluminescent devices," Adv. Mater. 17, 285-289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, W. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, "Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a p-doped amorphous hole injection layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 410-412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, and H. Kita, "Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S. H. Eom, J. G. Xue, and F. So, "High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 143307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Lee, J. S. Lin, M. T. Chu, and M. R. Tseng, "Low-voltage, high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, "Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5403-5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma "White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510-173512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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.http://www.universaldisplay.com/downloads/Press%20Releases/2008/PANL_whitemilestone_FINAL.pdf.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Blue device structure, (b) WOLED structure, (c) absorption and relative PL spectra of the CCLs, (d) normalized EL spectra, and (e) CIE coordinates and the corresponding photographs of the devices.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized EL spectra and CIE coordinates (inset) of the WOLED with a 0.3% DCJTB in the CCL at several current densities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Typical current density - voltage characteristics of the blue electrophosphorescent devices and forward viewing luminance - voltage characteristics, and (b) efficiencies of the devices.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance of the devices.

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