Abstract

We propose a simple design of a saturable absorber Q-switched all-fiber ring laser. By locating a saturable absorber fiber in the intensity-enhanced section of a ring resonator, the laser is passively Q-switched. A set of location-dependent rate equations is established for Q-switching modeling. The design has been numerically and experimentally demonstrated using Er3+ -doped fiber at the emission wavelength of 1550 nm. A single-mode Q-switched pulse with pulse energy of 0.37 μJ and pulse duration of 218 ns was achieved with 980-nm pump power near 7 mW.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 1318-1319 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Álvarez-Chávez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A: Clarckson and D. J. Richardson, "High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 37-39 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Paschotta, R. Haring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, "Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 μm," Opt. Lett. 24, 388 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Laroche, A. M. Chardon, J. Nilsson, D. P. Shepherd, and W. A. Clarkson, "Compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched tunable double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1980-1982 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Y. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, "High power passively Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser with Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber," Opt. Express 15, 473-479 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu and C. C. Yang, "Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153-1155 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Delgado-Pinar, D. Zalvidea, A. Díez, P. Pérez-Millán and M. V. Andrés, "Q-switching of an all-fiber laser by acousto-optic modulation of a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express 14, 1106 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng and S. Jiang, "Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm," presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).
  11. N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz and M. V. Andrés, "High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator," Opt. Commun. 210, 361-366 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Pérez-Millán, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, D. Zalvidea, and R. Duchowicz, "Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating," Opt. Express 13, 5046-5051 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Dussardier, A. Saissy and L. Tordella, "A passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber laser using a Co2+-doped fiber as saturable absorber," 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 562.
  14. L. Luo and P.L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov and I. M. Razdobreev, "All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser," 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.
  17. A. Siegman, "Passive Saturable Absorber Q-switching," in Chap. 26.3, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), pp. 1024-1033.

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, D. Zalvidea, and R. Duchowicz, "Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating," Opt. Express 13, 5046-5051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Laroche, A. M. Chardon, J. Nilsson, D. P. Shepherd, and W. A. Clarkson, "Compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched tunable double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1980-1982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz and M. V. Andrés, "High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator," Opt. Commun. 210, 361-366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu and C. C. Yang, "Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153-1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Álvarez-Chávez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A: Clarckson and D. J. Richardson, "High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 37-39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, "Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 μm," Opt. Lett. 24, 388 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 1318-1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Álvarez-Chávez, J. A.

Andres, M.V.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

Andrés, M.V.

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Y.O.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chardon, A. M.

Chen, Y. F.

Chu, P.L.

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Cruz, J. L.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz and M. V. Andrés, "High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator," Opt. Commun. 210, 361-366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J.L.

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delgado-Pinar, M.

M. Delgado-Pinar, D. Zalvidea, A. Díez, P. Pérez-Millán and M. V. Andrés, "Q-switching of an all-fiber laser by acousto-optic modulation of a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express 14, 1106 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Díez, A.

Duchowicz, R.

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, D. Zalvidea, and R. Duchowicz, "Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating," Opt. Express 13, 5046-5051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz and M. V. Andrés, "High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator," Opt. Commun. 210, 361-366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gamez, M.A.M.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

Haring, R.

Huang, D. W.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu and C. C. Yang, "Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153-1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

Kee, H. H.

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 1318-1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kir'yanov, A.V.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laroche, M.

Lees, G. P.

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 1318-1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. C.

Liu, W. F.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu and C. C. Yang, "Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153-1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, L.

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

Midavaine, T.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mora, J.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz and M. V. Andrés, "High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator," Opt. Commun. 210, 361-366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mouneu, L.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 1318-1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Offerhaus, H. L.

Pagnoux, D.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Pérez-Millán, P.

Roy, P.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russo, N. A.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz and M. V. Andrés, "High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator," Opt. Commun. 210, 361-366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russo, N.A.

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

Su, K. W.

Turner, P. W.

Vicente, S.G.C.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu and C. C. Yang, "Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153-1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zalvidea, D.

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 1318-1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu and C. C. Yang, "Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153-1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz and M.V. Andrés, "High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 244, 315-319 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz and M. V. Andrés, "High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator," Opt. Commun. 210, 361-366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Quantum. Electron. (1)

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir'yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, M.V. Andres, "Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser," Quantum. Electron. 34, 310-314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov and I. M. Razdobreev, "All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser," 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.

A. Siegman, "Passive Saturable Absorber Q-switching," in Chap. 26.3, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), pp. 1024-1033.

Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng and S. Jiang, "Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm," presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).

B. Dussardier, A. Saissy and L. Tordella, "A passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber laser using a Co2+-doped fiber as saturable absorber," 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 562.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic design of a passively Q-switched all-fiber ring laser

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse simulation of a passively Q-switched all-fiber ring laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Saturations of Ng (z) and Na (z) by the pulse, observed at the beginning, the top and the end of the pulse. The time points are marked with a, b, c in Fig.2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A steady output of sequentially SAQSed pulses. The square waveform was the driving current applied on the 980-nm pump laser diode. The measured pulse energy was 0.37 μJ, and the pulse duration was 218 ns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Definitions of the variables and parameters in simulation

Equations (7)

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N a ( z a , k ) N a ( z a , k 1 ) = p a K a N a ( z a , k 1 ) n a ( z a , k 1 ) · t r ,
N g ( z g , k ) N g ( z g , k 1 ) = p g K g N g ( z g , k 1 ) n g ( z g , k 1 ) · t r ,
n g z g k = n ar z a 1 k 1 e α 2 exp ( σ g A g z g 1 z g N g z k dz ) in the gain region ,
n ai z a k = n g ( z g 2 , k ) e α 1 exp ( σ a A a z a 1 z a N g z k dz ) from z a 1 to z a 2 ,
n ar z a k = n ai ( z a 2 , k ) e α f exp ( σ a A a z a 1 z a N a z k dz ) from z a 2 to z a 1 ,
n a z a k = n ai ( z a , k ) + n ar ( z a , k ) in the absorber region ,
σ g A g z g 1 z g 2 N gth ( z , 0 ) dz = ( α 1 α f α 2 2 N T σ a l a ) ,

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