Abstract

Compact and passive-alignment 4-channel × 2.5-Gbps optical interconnect modules are developed based on the silicon optical benches (SiOBs) of 5 × 5 mm2. A silicon-based 45° micro-reflector and V-groove arrays are fabricated on the SiOB using anisotropic wet etching. Moreover, high-frequency transmission lines of 4 channel × 2.5 Gbps, and bonding pads with Au/Sn eutectic solder are also deposited on the SiOB. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array and photo-detector (PD) array are flip-chip assembled on the intended positions. The multi-mode fiber (MMF) ribbons are passively aligned and mounted onto the V-groove arrays. Without the assistance of additional optics, the coupling efficiencies of VCSEL-to-MMF in the transmitting part and MMF-to-PD in the receiving part can be as high as −5.65 and −1.98 dB, respectively, under an optical path of 180 μm. The 1-dB coupling tolerance of greater than ± 20 μm is achieved for both transmitting and receiving parts. Eye patterns of both parts are demonstrated using 15-bit PRBS at 2.5 Gbps.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (2)

2008 (2)

X. Wang and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects—From point-to-point interconnection to optical bus architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6899, 6899031–6899039 (2008).

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hiramatsu and T. Mikawa, “Optical design of active interposer for high-speed chip level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 927–934 (2006).

M. Aljada, K. E. Alameh, Y. T. Lee, and I. S. Chung, “High-speed (2.5 Gbps) reconfigurable inter-chip optical interconnects using opto-VLSI processors,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6823–6836 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6823 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 443–451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Zubel, “Silicon anisotropic etching in alkaline solutions III: On the possibility of spatial structures forming in the course of Si(100) anisotropic etching in KOH and KOH+IPA solutions,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1), 116–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon. Packag. and Manufact. Technol. pt. B, 21(2), 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Ahearn, J. S.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alameh, K. E.

Ali, M. E.

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aljada, M.

Althaus, H. L.

H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon. Packag. and Manufact. Technol. pt. B, 21(2), 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

An, J. Y.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, R.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benabes, P.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bierhoff, T.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

Chateauneuf, M.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

X. Wang and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects—From point-to-point interconnection to optical bus architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6899, 6899031–6899039 (2008).

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. S.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. R.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. C.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chung, I. S.

Dangel, R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, J.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flower, G. M.

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, A.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gramann, W.

H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon. Packag. and Manufact. Technol. pt. B, 21(2), 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, M.

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guckenberger, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, S. W.

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heming, R.

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, S.

S. Hiramatsu and T. Mikawa, “Optical design of active interposer for high-speed chip level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 927–934 (2006).

Horst, F.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, H. L.

Hsu, C. H.

Hwang, S. H.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jarczynski, M.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

John, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kucharski, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwark, Y. H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lan, H. C.

Laprise, E.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Lemoff, B. E.

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Libsch, F. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Lukowicz, P.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Madhavan, B.

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mikawa, T.

S. Hiramatsu and T. Mikawa, “Optical design of active interposer for high-speed chip level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 927–934 (2006).

Nyikal, H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panotopoulos, G.

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panzer, K.

H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon. Packag. and Manufact. Technol. pt. B, 21(2), 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. H.

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-H.

S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Razavi, K.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, B. H.

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rho, B. S.

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russell, G. A.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrage, J.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, C.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shan, L.

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[CrossRef]

Snowdon, J. F.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sullau, W.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, H.

Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 443–451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, M. R. T.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trewhella, J. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Troster, G.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trott, G. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Venditti, M. B.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

Wang, F.

Wang, X.

X. Wang and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects—From point-to-point interconnection to optical bus architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6899, 6899031–6899039 (2008).

Wirz, M.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wittig, L. C.

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. L.

Zubel, I.

I. Zubel, “Silicon anisotropic etching in alkaline solutions III: On the possibility of spatial structures forming in the course of Si(100) anisotropic etching in KOH and KOH+IPA solutions,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1), 116–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, “MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2043–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Heming, L. C. Wittig, P. Dannberg, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and M. Gruber, “Efficient planar-integrated free-space optical interconnects fabricated by a combination of binary and analog lithography,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2136–2141 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004).
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H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 443–451 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 624–635 (2003).
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S. H. Hwang, J. Y. An, M. H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. S. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “VCSEL array module using (111) facet mirrors of a V-grooved silicon optical bench and angled fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 477–479 (2005).
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X. Wang and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects—From point-to-point interconnection to optical bus architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6899, 6899031–6899039 (2008).

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

I. Zubel, “Silicon anisotropic etching in alkaline solutions III: On the possibility of spatial structures forming in the course of Si(100) anisotropic etching in KOH and KOH+IPA solutions,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1), 116–125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Aoyama, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, K. Masuko, and S. Nakaya, “Bidirectional optical subassembly with prealigned silicon microlens and laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.18, no.16, pp. 1738–1740, Aug. (2006).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the proposed optical interconnect module based on the SiOBs. (a) Side-view drawing. (b) top-view drawing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ray-tracing simulation results for the transmitter. (b) Simulated estimation for optical cross-talk in the adjacent channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM picture of the fabricated SiOB combined with a 45° micro-reflector and an 8-channel V-groove array. A gold film is deposited on the 45° micro-reflector to enhance the reflectance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Side-view photo of the 45° micro-reflector. (b) AFM measurement of the surface profile for the 45° micro-reflector before/after a gold coating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Side-view photo of the fabricated V-groove array. The fiber center C in vertical position is well controlled with only 3.6 μm misalignment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SEM picture of the fabricated transmission line on the top mesa of the SiOB. (b) Au/Sn solder bump deposited on the pad of the transmission line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) SEM picture of VCSEL flip-chip bonded on the top mesa of the SiOB. (b) X-ray telescope photo to show the alignment accuracy of VCSEL’s flip-chip bonding.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photo of 8-channel MMF ribbon mounted on the V-groove array of the SiOB.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of active-alignment tolerance measurement for the proposed interconnect modules.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Alignment tolerance measurement results for the transmitting part.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Alignment tolerance measurement results for the receiving part.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured I-V curve of the 4-channel VCSELs after flip-chip assembled onto the SiOB.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Eye-diagram results for (a) transmitting part and (b) receiving parts.

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