Abstract

Recently metamaterials have been demonstrating new physics to enable various unprecedented electromagnetic properties, but pratically they are so sensitive to incident angles of the external excitation that their applications are restricted. Therefore, we present an anisotropic negative refractive index medium operated at multiple-angle incidences (NRIM for MAI) to ease such a burden. Both the simulated and measured transmittance, reflectance and the corresponding material parameters indicate that our structure does possess the anisotropic negative refractive index with respect to different incident angles. In addition, the opposite directions of group and phase velocities are also demonstrated under both grazing-angle, normal and 45-degree incidences to further verify the negative refractive index of the designed monolithic NRIM structure for multiple-angle incidences.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Seddon and T. Bearpark, “Observation of the inverse Doppler effect,” Science 302(5650), 1537–1540 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Lu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  15. C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8257–8262 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 404–414 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 107402 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Lett. 14, 8257 (2006).
  24. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials”,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(4), 048603 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. For the complete animations, please refer to the “Supporting Online Material" or contact the author directly (2009).
  28. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (7)

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 404–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8257–8262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Lett. 14, 8257 (2006).

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (5)

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials”,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(4), 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

N. Seddon and T. Bearpark, “Observation of the inverse Doppler effect,” Science 302(5650), 1537–1540 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65(14), 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Au Kong, J.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Bearpark, T.

N. Seddon and T. Bearpark, “Observation of the inverse Doppler effect,” Science 302(5650), 1537–1540 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. S.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chiang, Y.-J.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gollub, J.

D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huangfu, J. T.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imhof, C.

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Lett. 14, 8257 (2006).

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8257–8262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials”,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(4), 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Markos, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markoš, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials”,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(4), 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marqués, R.

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65(14), 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Medina, F.

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65(14), 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 404–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rafii-El-Idrissi, R.

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65(14), 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ran, L. X.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, N.

N. Seddon and T. Bearpark, “Observation of the inverse Doppler effect,” Science 302(5650), 1537–1540 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 404–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials”,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(4), 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials”,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(4), 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuttle, G.

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11(7), 723–734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zengerle, R.

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8257–8262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Lett. 14, 8257 (2006).

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. M.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. F.

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. R. Smith, J. Gollub, J. J. Mock, W. J. Padilla, and D. Schurig, “Calculation and measurement of bianisotropy in a split ring resonator metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, “Pairs of metallic crosses as a left-handed metamaterial with improved polarization properties,” Opt. Lett. 14, 8257 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B (4)

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73,193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65(14), 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (4)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Reply to Comments on “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials”,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(4), 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Seddon and T. Bearpark, “Observation of the inverse Doppler effect,” Science 302(5650), 1537–1540 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

For the complete animations, please refer to the “Supporting Online Material" or contact the author directly (2009).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (227 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (235 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (259 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The design of structure and its perspective. The yellow parts are two copper plates composed by U rings and rectangular plates on a Roger 5880 substrate. All the parameters are tabulated in Table 1

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The simulated transmittance (red), reflectance (blue) and measured transmittance (black) curves in dB scale at grazing-angle incidence. One can observe a transmittance peak at about 9.68 GHz, indicating an allowed band in this frequency region. Inset shows the configuration of the excited electric and magnetic fields for grazing-angle incidence. (b): the transmittance phase change of both measurement (black) and simulation (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The fabricated sample, the measurement setup and its configuration. Two broadband horn antennas are connected to the vector network analyzer (Aglient E8364A) to obtain the transmittance (S21). The receiver horn (port 2) is enclosed by microwave absorber and the measured samples are placed on the Styrofoam stage. We arrange our samples for two distinct incident angle in order to consist with the simulation. The inset shows the photograph of the real fabricated sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated material parameters (εeff , μeff and RI) at grazing-angle incidence (solid and dotted lines represent for real and imaginary parts, respectively). (a): retrieved effective permittivity (blue lines) and effective permeability (red lines). Lorentz resonance of permittivity is excited by the electric field due to the discontinuous conductor in the structure and εeff turns into negative above the resonance frequency. A magnetic resonance appears at 9.3 GHz and εeff exhibite an anti-resonance stemmed from magnetic resonance. (b): negative refractive index occurs near the region both εeff and μeff are negative. NRI is from 9.0 to 9.45 GHz and the value is down to -0.75. The induced currents are shown by arrows in the inset, indicating the induced currents are strongly localized at the ends of the rectangular plates where the artificial magnetic dipole mainly arises from.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

S-parameters (a) and transmittance phase change (b) at normal incidence. The similar transmittance behavior as in the case of grazing angle incidence appears. The transmittance peak indicates the negative refractive index with the smallest imaginary part. The inset depicts the polarization of incident wave.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated material parameters (εeff, μeff and RI) at normal incidence (solid and dotted lines represent for real and imaginary parts, respectively). (a): Resonance and anti-resonance in permittivity (blue) and their mechanisms are discussed in the content. Strong magnetic resonance in permeability (red) at about 9.8 GHz. (b): The refractive index is negative centered at 9.78 GHz and the region is from 9.2 GHz to 10 GHz. The inset is the induced current flows around the two copper plates, generating a magnetic resonance. The red arrows point out the direction of current flow.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Negative phase velocities shown by the animations of electric-field distributions. In this simulation, we rotate our structure a certain angle for the corresponding case (0, 45, 90 degree for grazing-angle, normal and 45 degree incidences, respectively.) (a) Phase velocity at grazing-angle incidence (Media 1). (b), (c) Phase velocity at normal (Media 2) and 45 degree (Media 3) incidence respectively. The black arrows indicate the peak of the wave inside the structure while the red ones specify the direction of incident wave The standing waves appear in the right of the structure because of the interface impedance mismatch. However, we observe the phase velocity of the transmittance wave is opposite to the wave in the structure. Therefore the phase velocity is negative in our designed structure.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The detailed parameters of the structure.

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