Abstract

Heavy mass ions, Kr and Xe, having energies in the ~10 MeV/amu range have been used to produce thick planar optical waveguides at the surface of lithium niobate (LiNbO3). The waveguides have a thickness of 40-50 micrometers, depending on ion energy and fluence, smooth profiles and refractive index jumps up to 0.04 (λ = 633 nm). They propagate ordinary and extraordinary modes with low losses keeping a high nonlinear optical response (SHG) that makes them useful for many applications. Complementary RBS/C data provide consistent values for the partial amorphization and refractive index change at the surface. The proposed method is based on ion-induced damage caused by electronic excitation and essentially differs from the usual implantation technique using light ions (H and He) of MeV energies. It implies the generation of a buried low-index layer (acting as optical barrier), made up of amorphous nanotracks embedded into the crystalline lithium niobate crystal. An effective dielectric medium approach is developed to describe the index profiles of the waveguides. This first test demonstration could be extended to other crystalline materials and could be of great usefulness for mid-infrared applications.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, “Second harmonic generation in the strong absorption regime,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(10), 1659–1669 (2000).
  23. M. Toulemonde, C. Dufour, and E. Paumier, “Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 46(22), 14362–14369 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (6)

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1880–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Labadie and O. Wallner, “Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1947–1962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, and F. Agulló-López, “Optical determination of 3-D nano-track profiles generated by single swift-heavy ion impacts in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Horjt, and A. Weidinger, “Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 216, 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, “Second harmonic generation in the strong absorption regime,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(10), 1659–1669 (2000).

1996 (1)

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Toulemonde, C. Dufour, and E. Paumier, “Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 46(22), 14362–14369 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(2), 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. Thévenard, G. Guiraud, C. H. S. Dupuy, and B. Delaunay, “Assumption of F-centre creation in lif bombarded with high-energy particles,” Radiat. Eff. 32(1), 83–90 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, and F. Agulló-López, “Optical determination of 3-D nano-track profiles generated by single swift-heavy ion impacts in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-Rueda, F.

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Argiolas, N.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balanzat, E.

M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Horjt, and A. Weidinger, “Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 216, 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bazzan, M.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentini, G. G.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bianconi, M.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Boudjadar, S.

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, R.

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brisard, F.

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, O.

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caballero-Calero, O.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, “Second harmonic generation in the strong absorption regime,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(10), 1659–1669 (2000).

Canut, B.

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, A.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(2), 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chiarini, M.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Constantini, J. M.

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Correa, L.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crespillo, M.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delaunay, B.

P. Thévenard, G. Guiraud, C. H. S. Dupuy, and B. Delaunay, “Assumption of F-centre creation in lif bombarded with high-energy particles,” Radiat. Eff. 32(1), 83–90 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, C.

M. Toulemonde, C. Dufour, and E. Paumier, “Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 46(22), 14362–14369 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dupuy, C. H. S.

P. Thévenard, G. Guiraud, C. H. S. Dupuy, and B. Delaunay, “Assumption of F-centre creation in lif bombarded with high-energy particles,” Radiat. Eff. 32(1), 83–90 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, G.

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García, G.

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, and F. Agulló-López, “Optical determination of 3-D nano-track profiles generated by single swift-heavy ion impacts in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Blanco, S.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Cabañes, A.

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Cabañes, A.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Navarro, A.

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Navarro, A.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, and F. Agulló-López, “Optical determination of 3-D nano-track profiles generated by single swift-heavy ion impacts in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guiraud, G.

P. Thévenard, G. Guiraud, C. H. S. Dupuy, and B. Delaunay, “Assumption of F-centre creation in lif bombarded with high-energy particles,” Radiat. Eff. 32(1), 83–90 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Guzzi, R.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hage-Ali, M.

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Helmy, A. S.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horjt, K.

M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Horjt, and A. Weidinger, “Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 216, 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

Khalfaoui, N.

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koechlin, M.

Kösters, M.

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Labadie, L.

Loubet, J. L.

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Majkic, A.

Mazzoldi, P.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meftah, A.

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, and F. Agulló-López, “Optical determination of 3-D nano-track profiles generated by single swift-heavy ion impacts in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, C.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, C. A.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, and F. Agulló-López, “Optical determination of 3-D nano-track profiles generated by single swift-heavy ion impacts in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paumier, E.

M. Toulemonde, C. Dufour, and E. Paumier, “Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 46(22), 14362–14369 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pennestri, G.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

Ramos, S. M. M.

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, “Second harmonic generation in the strong absorption regime,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(10), 1659–1669 (2000).

Rivera, A.

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sada, C.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scrutton, P.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stewart Aitchison, J.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoquert, J. P.

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Studer, F.

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thevenard, P.

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thévenard, P.

P. Thévenard, G. Guiraud, C. H. S. Dupuy, and B. Delaunay, “Assumption of F-centre creation in lif bombarded with high-energy particles,” Radiat. Eff. 32(1), 83–90 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Toulemonde, M.

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Horjt, and A. Weidinger, “Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 216, 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Toulemonde, C. Dufour, and E. Paumier, “Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 46(22), 14362–14369 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trautmann, C.

M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Horjt, and A. Weidinger, “Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 216, 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villarroel, J.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wallner, O.

Wang, K.-M.

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-L.

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weidinger, A.

M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Horjt, and A. Weidinger, “Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 216, 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woike, T.

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

O. Caballero-Calero, M. Kösters, T. Woike, K. Buse, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Electric field periodical poling of lithium niobate crystals after soft-proton-exchanged,” Appl. Phys. B 88(1), 75–78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López, J. Villarroel, M. Crespillo, and J. Olivares, “Periodic poling of optical waveguides produced by swift-heavy ion irradiation in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 435–439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Olivares, G. Garcia, A. Garcia-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. Garcia-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestri, and C. Sada, “On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, and F. Agulló-López, “Optical determination of 3-D nano-track profiles generated by single swift-heavy ion impacts in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

G. García, J. Olivares, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Effect of local rotations on the optical response of LiNbO3: application to ion-beam damage,” Europhys. Lett. 76(6), 1123–1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. A. Merchant, P. Scrutton, S. García-Blanco, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, J. Olivares, A. S. Helmy, and J. S. Aitchison, “High-Resolution Refractive Index and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Planar Waveguides in KGd(WO4)2 formed by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 373–379 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correa, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, “Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: structure and kinetics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Nucl. Instr. Meth. B (1)

M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Horjt, and A. Weidinger, “Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 216, 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B (1)

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods B (2)

B. Canut, S. M. M. Ramos, R. Brenier, P. Thevenard, J. L. Loubet, and M. Toulemonde, “Surface modification of LiNbO3 single crystals by swift heavy ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 107(1-4), 194–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Meftah, J. M. Constantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Experimental determination of track cross-section in GdGaO and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 237(3-4), 563–574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, and K.-M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J. M. Constantini, M. Hage-Ali, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer, and M. Toulemonde, “Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: a damage cross-section velocity effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48(2), 920–925 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. Rivera, J. Olivares, G. García, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-Rueda, and F. Agulló-López, “Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1109–1116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Eff. (1)

P. Thévenard, G. Guiraud, C. H. S. Dupuy, and B. Delaunay, “Assumption of F-centre creation in lif bombarded with high-energy particles,” Radiat. Eff. 32(1), 83–90 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Solids, edited by J.F. Ziegler, J.P. Biersack and U. Littmark (Pergamon Press, New York, 1985); see also the SRIM web page http://www.srim.org .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electronic energy loss of Kr (809 MeV) and Xe 1432 MeV as a function of penetration depth in LiNbO3 obtained with the SRIM-2003 code [17]. For comparison with earlier experiments [12], the case of Cl (45 MeV) is also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical micrographs from the polished edge of 1-mm thick Z-cut LiNbO3 samples irradiated (from left to right) with Xe ions of fluence 2x1011 cm−2 recorded in (a) transmission mode where the absorbing irradiated layer appears darker, (b) dark-field reflexion mode where the irradiated layer appears brighter than the substrate due to scattering centers, and (c) standard bright-field reflexion mode where a faint line at the depth of the end of ion range appears with different contrast.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Refractive index profiles (λ = 633 nm) determined from the dark modes measured for samples irradiated with Kr (809 MeV) at the three fluences indicated in units (ions/cm2). The substrate refractive indices of LiNbO3 (nos and nes) are shown as dotted lines. (b) Refractive index vs fluence determined at the surface form the index profiles (closed circle) and measured for the optical barrier layer (close squares).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) RBS spectra in channeling and random orientation measured with He (2 MeV) for Z-cut samples irradiated with Kr ions at different fluences; (b) damage fraction (factor f) vs fluence obtained from the RBS/C spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Track radius vs depth obtained from a calculation using the inelastic thermal spike model developed by Meftah et al. [10] and (b) Theoretical refractive index profiles that would correspond to the track profile shown in (a) for the fluences of 2x1011 and 4x1011 cm−2, calculated according to an effective medium approach as discussed in the text. The index profile optically determined for the same fluences are shown (dashed line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Irradiation parameters including the electronic energy loss Se at the sample surface and at the Bragg maximum as well as the maximum nuclear energy loss Sn and the projected ion range Rp according to the SRIM-2003 code [19]

Equations (1)

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ε ¯ e , o = n e , o 2 = f ε a + ( 1 f ) ε e , o

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