Abstract

In this paper, slow and fast light in optical fiber through tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) are reported. The experimental results show the capability of TFBGs to enable group velocity control of an optical pulse in optical fiber, due to the anomalous dispersion features induced by the coupling between the propagating core mode and each counter-propagating coupling cladding mode. In particular, superluminal propagation of a pulse train has been observed at optical communication wavelengths with time advancements in the picoseconds time scale in 1cm long TFBG and group velocity as large as about two times the speed of light in optical fiber (≈1.3∙c0). Very good agreement has been obtained comparing the measured group delay of the TFBG with the one retrieved from the amplitude response through Hilbert transform. Finally, tunable slow and fast light has also been reported, demonstrating the possibility to control the group velocity at single wavelength through both fluidic and thermal actuation.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, “Low-distortion slow light using two absorption resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 063812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (2)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, “The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium,” Nature 425(6959), 695–698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ware, S. A. Glasgow, and J. Peatross, “Role of group velocity in tracking field energy in linear dielectrics,” Opt. Express 9(10), 506–518 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-9-10-506 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2447–2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, R. M.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, “Low-distortion slow light using two absorption resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 063812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, “The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium,” Nature 425(6959), 695–698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glasgow, S. A.

Gonzalez Herraez, M.

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2447–2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herráez, M.

Herráez, M. G.

Howell, J. C.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, “Low-distortion slow light using two absorption resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 063812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2447–2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2447–2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lepeshkin, N. N.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Littler, I. C. M.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mok, J. T.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, “The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium,” Nature 425(6959), 695–698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pack, M. V.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, “Low-distortion slow light using two absorption resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 063812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

Poladian, L.

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

Song, K. Y.

Stenner, M. D.

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, “The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium,” Nature 425(6959), 695–698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thévenaz, L.

Ware, M.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2447–2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 775–780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, “The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium,” Nature 425(6959), 695–698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, and J. C. Howell, “Low-distortion slow light using two absorption resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 063812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2447–2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. C. Kemerait and D. G. Childers, “Signal Detection and Extraction by Cepstrum Techniques,” Trans. Inf. Theory 18 6, 745–759 (1972)
[CrossRef]

S. Longhi, M. Marano, P. Laporta, and M. Belmonte, “Superluminal optical pulse propagation at 1.5 μm in periodic fiber Bragg gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 055602 (2001)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for time delay measurements

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). Transmittance of the 5° Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating in the 1534.2-1540.2nm wavelength range. The correspondence between peaks and cladding modes is highlighted. (b) Experimentally measured Group delay of 5° Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating (solid circles) and predicted group delay retrieved from the transmittance (solid line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). Time advancements and delay versus peak depth for LP0n cladding modes (b)Time Advancement (Delay) - FWHM Bandwidth product for LP0n cladding modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a). Normalized amplitude of optical pulses at 1535.205nm, 1535.305nm and 1540.200nm. (b) Rising and (c) falling front of the same pulses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally measured (a) Transmittance and (b) Group Delay of the 5°-TFBG for the higher order cladding mode when the SRI is 1.33, 1.4 and 1.449

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Time delay versus surrounding refractive index at 1534.59nm and 26°C (b) Time delay versus temperature at 1534.56nm in water

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