Abstract

Laser-fabrication of complex, highly oriented three-dimensional ferroelectric single crystal architecture with straight lines and bends is demonstrated in lanthanum borogermanate model glass using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser. Scanning micro-Raman microscopy shows that the c-axis of the ferroelectric crystal is aligned with the writing direction even after bending. A gradual rather than an abrupt transition is observed for the changing lattice orientation through bends up to ~14°. Thus the single crystal character of the line is preserved along the bend through lattice straining rather than formation of a grain boundary.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4–6), 253–257 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6069–6074 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 408–410 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Dai, H. Ma, B. Lu, B. Yu, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-induced oriented precipitation of Ba2TiGe2O8 crystals in glass,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3912–3917 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Y. Choi, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Ultrafast laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon films,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3383–3388 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. N. Sigaev, S. Yu. Stefanovich, P. D. Sarkisov, and E. V. Lopatina, “Stillwellite glass-ceramics with ferroelectric properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 32(1–2), 17–23 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, “Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5282–5287 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 136–138 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 1774–1785 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. V. Pisarev and M. Serhane, “Raman scattering study of the ferroelectric LaBGeO5,” Phys. Solid State 37(12), 2022–2028 (1995).
  19. I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, H. Ma, B. Lu, B. Yu, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-induced oriented precipitation of Ba2TiGe2O8 crystals in glass,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3912–3917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4–6), 253–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6069–6074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Y. Choi, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Ultrafast laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon films,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3383–3388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, “Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5282–5287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 1774–1785 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

V. N. Sigaev, S. Yu. Stefanovich, P. D. Sarkisov, and E. V. Lopatina, “Stillwellite glass-ceramics with ferroelectric properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 32(1–2), 17–23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Pisarev and M. Serhane, “Raman scattering study of the ferroelectric LaBGeO5,” Phys. Solid State 37(12), 2022–2028 (1995).

Arai, A. Y.

Araki, R.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benino, Y.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, “Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5282–5287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

Cao, S.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, T. Y.

T. Y. Choi, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Ultrafast laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon films,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3383–3388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Eaton, S. M.

Fujita, K.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, “Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5282–5287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gregora, I.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

T. Y. Choi, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Ultrafast laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon films,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3383–3388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 136–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 408–410 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honma, T.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hrubá, I.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. J.

T. Y. Choi, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Ultrafast laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon films,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3383–3388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ihara, R.

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivannikov, D.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamba, S.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanert, O.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komandin, G.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, T.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, “Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5282–5287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuechler, R.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

Liu, Y.

Lopatina, E. V.

V. N. Sigaev, S. Yu. Stefanovich, P. D. Sarkisov, and E. V. Lopatina, “Stillwellite glass-ceramics with ferroelectric properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 32(1–2), 17–23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

Y. Dai, H. Ma, B. Lu, B. Yu, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-induced oriented precipitation of Ba2TiGe2O8 crystals in glass,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3912–3917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4–6), 253–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Y. Dai, H. Ma, B. Lu, B. Yu, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-induced oriented precipitation of Ba2TiGe2O8 crystals in glass,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3912–3917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4–6), 253–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6069–6074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Miura, K.

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 136–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 408–410 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petzelt, J.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pisarev, R. V.

R. V. Pisarev and M. Serhane, “Raman scattering study of the ferroelectric LaBGeO5,” Phys. Solid State 37(12), 2022–2028 (1995).

Qian, B.

Qiu, J.

Sakakura, M.

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisov, P. D.

V. N. Sigaev, S. Yu. Stefanovich, P. D. Sarkisov, and E. V. Lopatina, “Stillwellite glass-ceramics with ferroelectric properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 32(1–2), 17–23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sato, R.

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serhane, M.

R. V. Pisarev and M. Serhane, “Raman scattering study of the ferroelectric LaBGeO5,” Phys. Solid State 37(12), 2022–2028 (1995).

Shah, L.

Shimizu, M.

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 136–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 136–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sigaev, V. N.

V. N. Sigaev, S. Yu. Stefanovich, P. D. Sarkisov, and E. V. Lopatina, “Stillwellite glass-ceramics with ferroelectric properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 32(1–2), 17–23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stefanovich, S. Yu.

V. N. Sigaev, S. Yu. Stefanovich, P. D. Sarkisov, and E. V. Lopatina, “Stillwellite glass-ceramics with ferroelectric properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 32(1–2), 17–23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strukov, B.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, “Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5282–5287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, D.

D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 1774–1785 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, A.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. B.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yonesaki, Y.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

Yu, B.

Y. Dai, H. Ma, B. Lu, B. Yu, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-induced oriented precipitation of Ba2TiGe2O8 crystals in glass,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3912–3917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4–6), 253–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

Zhu, B.

Zikmund, Z.

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, “Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4–6), 253–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, “Second harmonic generation in transparent surface crystallized glasses with stillwellite-type LaBGeO5,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5282–5287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, O. Kanert, and R. Kuechler, “Structural Evolution of LaBGeO5 Transparent Ferroelectric Nano-Composites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 291–298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

V. N. Sigaev, S. Yu. Stefanovich, P. D. Sarkisov, and E. V. Lopatina, “Stillwellite glass-ceramics with ferroelectric properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 32(1–2), 17–23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Y. Choi, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Ultrafast laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon films,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3383–3388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

D. Umstadter, “Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 1774–1785 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Solid State (1)

R. V. Pisarev and M. Serhane, “Raman scattering study of the ferroelectric LaBGeO5,” Phys. Solid State 37(12), 2022–2028 (1995).

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

I. Hrubá, S. Kamba, J. Petzelt, I. Gregora, Z. Zikmund, D. Ivannikov, G. Komandin, A. Volkov, and B. Strukov, “Optical Phonons and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in the LaBGeO5 Crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 214, 423–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, “Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing,” Solid State Commun. 136(5), 273–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of bending if lattice orientation is fixed with respect to (a) sample, and (b) writing direction. While (a) may be expected, results show that (b) occurs instead. The orientation change could occur by lattice strain or by a grain boundary.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: Polarized light micrographs of fs laser-crystallized LaBGeO5 lines written in XY plane with bends of 6°, 14°, and 27°. Right: SEM backscattered electron image of a line cross-section. Arrow indicates incident beam direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical Raman spectra when excitation and emission polarizations are (a) parallel to a crystal line, and (b) orthogonal to a crystal line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning Raman images of the average intensity of the 392 cm−1 Raman peak (resolution is 2 data points per micron). Image (a) demonstrates sensitivity of the technique: The yellow (light) colored region at the bottom is an existing line from which a new line was written orthogonally and developed a red color nearly the same as the surrounding glass (the dark region shows the effects of cracks due to low writing speed). Image (b) shows a gradual intensity increase across a 14° bend, indicating a gradual lattice reorientation in response to the change in writing direction.

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