Abstract

In this paper we discuss the use of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) as discrete devices for simultaneous wideband dispersion compensation and Raman amplification. The performance of the PCFs in terms of gain, ripple, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and required fiber length for complete dispersion compensation is compared with conventional dispersion compensating fibers (DCFs). The main goal is to determine the minimum PCF loss beyond which its performance surpasses a state-of-the-art DCF and justifies practical use in telecommunication systems.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Lin, H. Kogelnik, and L. G. Cohen, “Optical-pulse equalization of low-dispersion transmission in single-mode fibers in the 1.3 - 1.7-μ m spectral region,” Opt. Lett. 5(11), 476–478 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Dugan, A. J. Price, M. Ramadan, D. L. Wolf, E. F. Murphy, A. J. Antos, D. K. Smith, and D. W. Hall, “All-optical, fiber-based 1550 nm dispersion compensation in a 10 Gb/s, 150 km transmission experiment over 1310 nm optimized fiber,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), (San Jose, CA, 1992), Paper PD14.
  3. P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1136–1137 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Ania-Castañon and S. K. Turitsyn, “Noise and gain optimisation in bi-directionally pumped dispersion compensating amplifier modules,” Opt. Commun. 224(1-3), 107–111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, J. Miret, and M. Andres, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9(13), 687–697 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L.- P. Shen, W.-P. Huang, and S.-S. Jian, “Design of photonic crystal fibers for dispersion related applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1644–1651 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Matsui, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and I. Sankawa, “Dispersion flattened photonic crystal fiber with large effective area and low confinement loss,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4178–4183 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Yao, S. Lou, H. Fang, T. Guo, H. Li, and S. Jian, “High Negative Dispersion and Low Confinement Loss Photonic Crystal Fiber,” in Asia Optical Fiber Communication & Optoelectronic Exposition (OEA), (Shangai, 2007).
  10. Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Large Negative Dispersion in Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Optional Mode Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1402–1404 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. J. Mangan, F. Couny, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, M. Banham, M. W. Mason, D. F. Murphy, E. A. M. Brown, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Slope-matched dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPDD3.
  13. Z. Yusoff, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, “Raman effects in a highly nonlinear holey fiber: amplification and modulation,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 424–426 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 101–110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 7–10 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and P. J. Roberts, “Analysis of a realistic and idealized dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 13(2), 174–179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. P. Cani, M. Freitas, R. T. Almeida, and L. C. Calmon, “Raman amplifier performance of dispersion compensating fibers,” in Proceedings of SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoeletronics Conference (IMOC 2003), (Iguazu Falls, Brazil, 2003), pp. 553–558.
  21. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, USA, 3rd edition, 2001), Chap.8.
  22. D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Numerical comparison between distributed and discrete amplification in a point-to-point 40 Gbit/s 40-WDM-based transmission system with three different modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(3), 379–388 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman, and A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(10), 1322–1324 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. P. Cani, L. C. Calmon, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, M. E. V. Segatto, and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “An analytical approximated solution for the gain of broadband Raman amplifiers with multiple counter-pumps,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(7), 944–951 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1225–1239 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete Raman amplifiers: case-study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14121–14131 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. K. Varshney, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Novel design of inherently gain-flattened discrete highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier and dispersion compensation using a single pump in C-band,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9516–9526 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, and P. S. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1629–1631 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Huttunen and P. Törmä, “Optimization of dual-core and microstructure fiber geometries for dispersion compensation and large mode area,” Opt. Express 13(2), 627–635 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. Yang, Y. J. Zhang, X. Z. Peng, Y. Lu, S. H. Xie, J. Li, W. Chen, Z. Jiang, J. Peng, and H. Li, “Theoretical study and experimental fabrication of high negative dispersion photonic crystal fiber with large area mode field,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3015–3023 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Large Negative Dispersion in Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Optional Mode Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1402–1404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and P. J. Roberts, “Analysis of a realistic and idealized dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 13(2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (6)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, J. Miret, and M. Andres, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9(13), 687–697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman, and A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(10), 1322–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1136–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1225–1239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Achtenhagen, M.

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman, and A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(10), 1322–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M.

Andres, P.

Ania-Castañon, J. D.

J. D. Ania-Castañon and S. K. Turitsyn, “Noise and gain optimisation in bi-directionally pumped dispersion compensating amplifier modules,” Opt. Commun. 224(1-3), 107–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1225–1239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ayres Neto, J. B. M.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

Bian, B.

Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Large Negative Dispersion in Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Optional Mode Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1402–1404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Borges, B. V.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borges, B.-H. V.

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calmon, L. C.

S. P. Cani, L. C. Calmon, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, M. E. V. Segatto, and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “An analytical approximated solution for the gain of broadband Raman amplifiers with multiple counter-pumps,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(7), 944–951 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cani, S. P.

Cani, S. P. N.

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete Raman amplifiers: case-study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14121–14131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cartaxo, A. V. T.

Castellani, C. E. S.

Chang, T. G.

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman, and A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(10), 1322–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Cohen, L. G.

Couny, F.

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dahan, D.

De Francisco, C. A.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Digweed-Lyytikainen, K.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

Ferrando, A.

Fujisawa, T.

Fukai, C.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 101–110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1136–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. B.

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1136–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman, and A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(10), 1322–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

Huang, W.-P.

Huttunen, A.

Jacobovitz-Veselka, G.

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1136–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jian, S.-S.

Jiang, Z.

Joly, N. Y.

Juriollo, A. A.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

Kidorf, H.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogelnik, H.

Koshiba, M.

Kurokawa, K.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 101–110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, H.

Li, J.

Lin, C.

Lu, J.

Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Large Negative Dispersion in Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Optional Mode Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1402–1404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Ma, M.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and I. Sankawa, “Dispersion flattened photonic crystal fiber with large effective area and low confinement loss,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4178–4183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 101–110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miret, J.

Monro, T. M.

Nakajima, K.

Nascimento, V. E.

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nissov, M.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nyman, B.

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman, and A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(10), 1322–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

Peng, X. Z.

Pontes, M. J.

Rabarijaona, E.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, M. R. N.

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and P. J. Roberts, “Analysis of a realistic and idealized dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 13(2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. A.

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete Raman amplifiers: case-study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14121–14131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosolem, J. B.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, and P. S. J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Sankawa, I.

T. Matsui, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and I. Sankawa, “Dispersion flattened photonic crystal fiber with large effective area and low confinement loss,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4178–4183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 101–110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasaoka, E.

Sato, K.

Segatto, M. E.

Segatto, M. E. V.

Shen, L.- P.

Shi, Y.

Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Large Negative Dispersion in Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Optional Mode Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1402–1404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, E.

Spadoti, D.

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spadoti, D. H.

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1136–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 101–110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 7–10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teh, P. C.

Törmä, P.

Turitsyn, S. K.

J. D. Ania-Castañon and S. K. Turitsyn, “Noise and gain optimisation in bi-directionally pumped dispersion compensating amplifier modules,” Opt. Commun. 224(1-3), 107–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varshney, S. K.

S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and P. J. Roberts, “Analysis of a realistic and idealized dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 13(2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Varshney, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Novel design of inherently gain-flattened discrete highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier and dispersion compensation using a single pump in C-band,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9516–9526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Xie, S. H.

Yang, S.

Yusoff, Z.

Zhang, Y. J.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Large Negative Dispersion in Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Optional Mode Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1402–1404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman, and A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(10), 1322–1324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fiber modules,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1136–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

S. P. N. Cani, C. A. De Francisco, D. H. Spadoti, V. E. Nascimento, B.-H. V. Borges, L. C. Calmon, and M. A. Romero, “Requirements for efficient Raman amplification and dispersion compensation using microstructured optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 26(5), 255–270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, and E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 530–532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Large Negative Dispersion in Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers Based on Optional Mode Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1402–1404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. (1)

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun Rep. 2(5), 435–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, C. A. De Francisco, D. Spadoti, A. A. Juriollo, J. B. Rosolem, J. B. M. Ayres Neto, B. V. Borges, J. Canning, and M. A. Romero, “Photonic crystal optical fibers for dispersion compensation and Raman amplification: design and experiment,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(4), 872–874 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. D. Ania-Castañon and S. K. Turitsyn, “Noise and gain optimisation in bi-directionally pumped dispersion compensating amplifier modules,” Opt. Commun. 224(1-3), 107–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and P. J. Roberts, “Analysis of a realistic and idealized dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 13(2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 101–110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (5)

J. M. Dugan, A. J. Price, M. Ramadan, D. L. Wolf, E. F. Murphy, A. J. Antos, D. K. Smith, and D. W. Hall, “All-optical, fiber-based 1550 nm dispersion compensation in a 10 Gb/s, 150 km transmission experiment over 1310 nm optimized fiber,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), (San Jose, CA, 1992), Paper PD14.

S. P. Cani, M. Freitas, R. T. Almeida, and L. C. Calmon, “Raman amplifier performance of dispersion compensating fibers,” in Proceedings of SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoeletronics Conference (IMOC 2003), (Iguazu Falls, Brazil, 2003), pp. 553–558.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, USA, 3rd edition, 2001), Chap.8.

L. Yao, S. Lou, H. Fang, T. Guo, H. Li, and S. Jian, “High Negative Dispersion and Low Confinement Loss Photonic Crystal Fiber,” in Asia Optical Fiber Communication & Optoelectronic Exposition (OEA), (Shangai, 2007).

B. J. Mangan, F. Couny, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, M. Banham, M. W. Mason, D. F. Murphy, E. A. M. Brown, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Slope-matched dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CPDD3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tree diagram showing the relationship among Raman amplifier models used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The discrete multi-pumped Raman amplifier setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solution space for a PCF loss of (a) 3 dB/km, (b) 4 dB/km and (c) 5 dB/km attenuation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain versus the signal wavelength for all the cases shown on Table 1: analytical formulation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain versus the signal wavelength for all the cases studied: numerical model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean gain (a) and OSNR (b) as a function of the launched signal power at the fiber input.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean gain as a function of the input signal power for three distinct values of Raman gain efficiency.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System parameters.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Best configurations obtained with the analytical model.

Tables Icon

Table 3 – Comparative table: numerical vs. analytical models.

Metrics