Abstract

A new microarray for dynamical studies of surface biomolecular interactions without fluorescent labeling is proposed. We employed gold nanostructures to excite surface plasmons on the microarray surface and detected the intensity changes in the extraordinary transmission. The calculation and measurement results indicate that the nanoslit array has an intensity sensitivity much higher than the nanohole array due to its narrower resonant bandwidth. In addition, the sensitivity is increased as the slit width decreases. For 35 nm slit width, the intensity sensitivity reaches to ~4000%/RIU, two times larger than the slit width larger than 150 nm. Using the intensity changes, we demonstrate a 10 × 10 microarray for real-time measurements of antigen-antibody and DNA-DNA interactions.

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References

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  1. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer 2007).
  2. M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  4. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, P. O.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, D. J. D.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, R. W.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lange, V.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Leebeeck, A.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edee, K.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granet, G.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, G. M.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, J.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, L. K. S.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lafarge, C.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. N.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurent, N.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. W.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. L.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesuffleur, A.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacBeath, G.

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

Moreau, A.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, J. G.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. H.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, S. L.

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

Shalon, D.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinton, D.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsky, B.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K. A.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. S.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P. K.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, “Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray,” Science 270(5235), 467–470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer 2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1967 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The optical image of a 10 × 10 microarray on a glass slide. Each green area was consisted of a 600nm-period gold nanoslit array. The area was 150 μm in square. (b) The SEM image of a 600nm-period gold nanohole array. (c) The SEM image of a 600nm-period gold nanoslit array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The optical setup for measuring the transmission spectrum of single periodic gold nanostructure in aqueous condition. (b) The optical setup for measuring the transmission intensities of multiple periodic gold nanostructures at a fixed wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The calculated transmission spectra of gold nanohole arrays with different hole sizes. (b) The calculated transmission spectra of gold nanoslit arrays with different slit widths. All the structures have the same 600 nm period. The hole sizes and slit widths are indicated in the insets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The measured transmission spectra of gold nanohole arrays with different hole sizes. (b) The normalized transmission spectra of Fig. 4(a). All the structures have the same 600 nm period. The hole sizes are indicated in the insets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The measured transmission spectra of gold nanoslit arrays with different slit widths. (b) The normalized transmission spectra of Fig. 5(a). All the structures have the same 600 nm period. The bandwidths for different slit widths are shown in the inset.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The measured transmission spectra of gold nanoslit arrays in different surrounding media. (b) The spectrum of intensity sensitivity for nanoslits. The period was 600 nm and slit widths were 35 nm, 92 nm and 166 nm, respectively. (c) The spectrum of intensity sensitivity for nanoholes. The period was 600 nm and hole sizes were 105 nm, 158 nm and 191 nm, respectively. (d) The maximum sensitivities for different nanoholes and nanoslits.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The normalized intensity changes for different surrounding water/glycerin mixtures covering on the nanoslit arrays. The inset shows three nanoslit arrays (150 μm × 150 μm) with various slit widths, 80 nm, 110 nm and 150 nm, respectively. (b) The normalized intensity change against the refractive index. The intensity sensitivities are calculated from the slopes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The setup for measuring the antibody-antigen interactions on the microarray. The interactions were monitored by the intensity changes as detected by the CCD camera. (b) The movie of intensity images of the 10 × 10 nanoslit arrays at different interaction times. The images were obtained by subtracting the measured time-lapsed images I(x,y;t) with the initial CCD image I(x,y;t = 0)(Media 1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) The normalized intensity as a function of the interaction time for one of the nanoslit array (5,5) shown in Fig. 8(b). The BSA results in an intensity change of 5%. The 5 nM Anti-BSA caused an intensity change of 12%. (b) The normalized intensity as a function of the interaction time for DNA-DNA interactions. The probe DNAs were immobilized to the gold surface. The target DNA of 16 mer oligonucelotides was detected when hybridized with the probe DNAs.

Equations (4)

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λ ( i , j ) = P i 2 + j 2 ( ε m + n 2 ε m + n 2 ) 1 / 2
S I ( λ ) = Δ I / I 0 Δ n = I ( λ + Δ λ ) I ( λ ) I ( λ ) / Δ n I ' ( λ ) Δ λ I ( λ ) Δ n = S λ I ' ( λ ) I ( λ )
I ' ( λ ) = 2 ( λ λ 0 ) d 2 exp ( ( λ λ 0 d ) 2 )
S I = Δ I I 0 / Δ n × 100 ( % ) I ( s a l t ) I ( w a t e r ) I ( w a t e r ) / [ n ( s a l t ) n ( w a t e r ) ] × 100 ( % / R I U )

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