Abstract

We investigate frequency up-conversion of low power cw resonant radiation in Rb vapour as a function of various experimental parameters. We present evidence that the process of four wave mixing is responsible for unidirectional blue light generation and that the phase matching conditions along a light-induced waveguide determine the direction and divergence of the blue light. Velocity-selective excitation to the 5D level via step-wise and two-photon processes results in a Doppler-free dependence on the frequency detuning of the applied laser fields from the respective dipole-allowed transitions. Possible schemes for ultraviolet generation are discussed.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263(5145), 337–338 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(3), 201 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. E. Becerra, R. T. Willis, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: The diamond configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 013834 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65(5), 051801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Meijer, J. D. White, B. Smeets, M. Jeppesen, and R. E. Scholten, “Blue five-level frequency-upconversion system in rubidium,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1002–1004 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. T. Schultz, S. Abend, D. Döring, J. E. Debs, P. A. Altin, J. D. White, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Coherent 455 nm beam production in a cesium vapor,” Arxiv: 0905.3980v1 [physics. atom-ph] (2009).
  10. A. Vernier, S. Franke-Arnold, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Enhanced frequency up-conversion in Rb vapor”, Arxiv: 0911.0812v1 [physics. atom-ph] (2009).
  11. D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. S. Heavens, “Radiative transition probabilities of the lower excited states of the alkali metals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51(10), 1058–1061 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Bjorkholm and P. F. Liao, “Line shape strength of two-photon absorption in an atomic vapor with a resonant or nearly resonant intermediate state,” Phys. Rev. A 14(2), 751–760 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Sargsyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Städter, and A. M. Akulshin, “Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D2 lines of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 101(5), 762–768 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Killian, “Thermionic phenomena caused by vapors of rubidium and potassium,” Phys. Rev. 27(5), 578–587 (1926).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. E. Becerra, R. T. Willis, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: The diamond configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 013834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Sargsyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Städter, and A. M. Akulshin, “Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D2 lines of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 101(5), 762–768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Meijer, J. D. White, B. Smeets, M. Jeppesen, and R. E. Scholten, “Blue five-level frequency-upconversion system in rubidium,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1002–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65(5), 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(3), 201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263(5145), 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm and P. F. Liao, “Line shape strength of two-photon absorption in an atomic vapor with a resonant or nearly resonant intermediate state,” Phys. Rev. A 14(2), 751–760 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

1926 (1)

T. Killian, “Thermionic phenomena caused by vapors of rubidium and potassium,” Phys. Rev. 27(5), 578–587 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Akulshin, A. M.

A. Sargsyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Städter, and A. M. Akulshin, “Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D2 lines of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 101(5), 762–768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R.

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becerra, F. E.

F. E. Becerra, R. T. Willis, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: The diamond configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 013834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bell, S. C.

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm and P. F. Liao, “Line shape strength of two-photon absorption in an atomic vapor with a resonant or nearly resonant intermediate state,” Phys. Rev. A 14(2), 751–760 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cimmino, A.

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corbalan, R.

J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(3), 201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263(5145), 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hannaford, P.

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

Hofmann, Ch. S.

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65(5), 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, M.

Kargapol'tsev, S. V.

S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kash, M. M.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Killian, T.

T. Killian, “Thermionic phenomena caused by vapors of rubidium and potassium,” Phys. Rev. 27(5), 578–587 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

J. E. Bjorkholm and P. F. Liao, “Line shape strength of two-photon absorption in an atomic vapor with a resonant or nearly resonant intermediate state,” Phys. Rev. A 14(2), 751–760 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65(5), 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McLean, R.

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, T.

Mompart, J.

J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(3), 201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orozco, L. A.

F. E. Becerra, R. T. Willis, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: The diamond configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 013834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, S. L.

F. E. Becerra, R. T. Willis, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: The diamond configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 013834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sargsyan, A.

A. Sargsyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Städter, and A. M. Akulshin, “Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D2 lines of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 101(5), 762–768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisyan, D.

A. Sargsyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Städter, and A. M. Akulshin, “Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D2 lines of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 101(5), 762–768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Meijer, J. D. White, B. Smeets, M. Jeppesen, and R. E. Scholten, “Blue five-level frequency-upconversion system in rubidium,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1002–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65(5), 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263(5145), 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheludko, D. V.

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, A. I.

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smeets, B.

Städter, D.

A. Sargsyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Städter, and A. M. Akulshin, “Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D2 lines of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 101(5), 762–768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taichenachev, A. V.

S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vredenbregt, E. J. D.

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, J. D.

Willis, R. T.

F. E. Becerra, R. T. Willis, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: The diamond configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 013834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yarovitsky, A. V.

S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V. I.

S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65(5), 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (2)

J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(3), 201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, A. Cimmino, A. I. Sidorov, R. McLean, and P. Hannaford, “Highly nonlinear atomic medium with steep and sign-reversible dispersion,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(4), S479–S485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

A. Sargsyan, D. Sarkisyan, D. Städter, and A. M. Akulshin, “Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D2 lines of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 101(5), 762–768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

T. Killian, “Thermionic phenomena caused by vapors of rubidium and potassium,” Phys. Rev. 27(5), 578–587 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

J. E. Bjorkholm and P. F. Liao, “Line shape strength of two-photon absorption in an atomic vapor with a resonant or nearly resonant intermediate state,” Phys. Rev. A 14(2), 751–760 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Sheludko, S. C. Bell, R. Anderson, Ch. S. Hofmann, E. J. D. Vredenbregt, and R. E. Scholten, “State-selective imaging of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Becerra, R. T. Willis, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: The diamond configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 78(1), 013834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65(5), 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, “Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(26), 5229–5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

S. V. Kargapol'tsev, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Yarovitsky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Optical cascade pumping of the 7P3/2 level in cesium atoms,” Quantum Electron. 35(7), 591–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263(5145), 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. T. Schultz, S. Abend, D. Döring, J. E. Debs, P. A. Altin, J. D. White, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Coherent 455 nm beam production in a cesium vapor,” Arxiv: 0905.3980v1 [physics. atom-ph] (2009).

A. Vernier, S. Franke-Arnold, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Enhanced frequency up-conversion in Rb vapor”, Arxiv: 0911.0812v1 [physics. atom-ph] (2009).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Energy levels of Rb atoms and the optical transitions used in the experiments. (b) Blue fluorescence of Rb atoms excited by the bichromatic resonant light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme which illustrates the phase-matching relation for nearly-parallel laser beams and observed profiles of the light beams after the cell superimposed on a isotropic fluorescence background recorded using a spatially sensitive detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections of the blue light beam observed at different frequencies of the 780-nm laser in the vicinity of the 5S 1/2 (F = 3)® 5P 3/2 transitions in 85Rb. (a), (b) and (c) correspond to the laser frequency tuned to the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) ® 5P 3/2 (F’ = 2) transition, 5S 1/2 (F = 3) ® 5P 3/2 (F’ = 4) transition and to high-frequency slope of the Doppler profile, respectively. The 776-nm laser frequency is tuned to a maximum of the CBL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Collimated blue light (i) and fluorescence at 420 nm (ii) as a function of the 776-nm laser detuning observed at 60 °C. The 780-nm laser is locked to the 5S 1/2(F = 3)® 5P 3/2(F’ = 4) transition in 85Rb, while the 776-nm laser is scanned in the vicinity of the 5P 3/2(F’ = 4)®5D 5/2 transition. Curve (iii) shows transmission resonances of the Fabry-Perot cavity. (b) Collimated blue light generated in the Rb cell at 82 °C vs the 780-nm laser frequency detuning from the 5S 1/2(F = 3) ® 5P 3/2(F’ = 4) transition. Curves (i), (ii) and (iii) correspond to different fixed frequencies of the 776 nm laser. Curve (iv) represents the reference Doppler-free absorption resonances observed in an auxiliary Rb cell.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of the CBL at different polarizations as a function of the 776-nm laser frequency in the vicinity of the 5P 3/2 ® 5D 5/2 transitions in 85Rb. The 780-nm laser is locked to the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) ® 5P 3/2 (F’ = 4) transition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power dependences of the CBL obtained with circularly polarized bichromatic light when the frequency of the 780-nm laser is locked to the 5S 1/2 (F = 3)®5P 3/2(F’ = 4) transition, while the 776-nm laser is tuned to the maximum power of the blue light. (a) Power of the CBL at different atomic densities as a function of the total applied laser power. Both components of the bichromatic beam have equal power. (b) CBL power at an atomic density of 3 ´ 1011 cm−3 (60.3 °C) as a function of the power of each component, while the other component is kept unchanged at 0.65 mW.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature dependence of the CBL. The 780-nm laser is locked to the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) ® 5P 3/2 (F’ = 4) transition in 85Rb while the 776-nm laser is tuned to a maximum of the CBL.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Profiles of CBL generated at different atomic densities vs the 780-nm laser frequency detuning from the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) ® 5P 3/2 (F’ = 4) transition 85Rb, while the frequency of the 776-nm laser is tuned to the maximum of the blue light power. Curves (i) (multiplied by 5) and (ii) were obtained at N = 0.3′1012 cm−3 and N = 1.4´1012 cm−3, respectively, while curve (iii) shows the reference absorption profile in the auxiliary Rb cell.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The beat signal produced by two blue light beams mixed on PMT and observed on the RF spectrum analyzer. Blue light is generated in two different Rb cells at N = 0.6´1012 cm−3 using the same pair lasers. The 780-nm laser is locked to the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) ® 5P 3/2 (F’ = 4) transition in 85Rb while the 776-nm laser is tuned to a maximum of the CBL.

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