Abstract

We present the Hanle EIT resonances obtained from the various segments of the Gaussian laser beam cross-section, selected by moving the small aperture (placed in front of the detector) radially along the laser beam. Significant differences in the Hanle lineshapes are observed depending on whether the central or outer parts of the Gaussian laser beam are detected. The line narrowing and two counter-sign peaks occur at outer, less intense parts of the beam. The theoretical model suggests that the EIT lineshapes in the laser wings are result of the interference of the laser light and coherently prepared atoms coming from the central part of the beam. By blocking the central part of the laser beam in front of the detector, narrower, and for high laser intensities, even more contrasted Hanle resonances are obtained.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” Prog. Opt. 35, 257–354 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriolis, “An experimental method for the observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Nuovo Cim. 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear Optical Processes Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Moruzzi and F. Strumia, “The Hanle effect and level crossing spectroscopy,” (Plenum Press 1991).
  6. C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Javan, O. Kocharovskaya, H. Lee, and M. O. Scully, “Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 013805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023806 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Krmpot, M. M. Mijailović, B. M. Panić, D. V. Lukić, A. G. Kovacević, D. V. Pantelić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Sub-Doppler absorption narrowing in atomic vapor at two intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1448–1456 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Radonjić, D. Arsenović, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Coherent population trapping linewidths for open transitions: Cases of different transverse laser intensity distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023805 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Diffusion-Induced Ramsey Narrowing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043601 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, “A wall-collision-induced Ramsey resonance,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).
  17. C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Wasik, W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and W. Zawadzki, “Laser frequency stabilization by Doppler-free magnetic dichroism,” Appl. Phys. B 75(6-7), 613–619 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Radonjić, D. Arsenović, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Coherent population trapping linewidths for open transitions: Cases of different transverse laser intensity distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Diffusion-Induced Ramsey Narrowing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Krmpot, M. M. Mijailović, B. M. Panić, D. V. Lukić, A. G. Kovacević, D. V. Pantelić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Sub-Doppler absorption narrowing in atomic vapor at two intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1448–1456 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

G. Wasik, W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and W. Zawadzki, “Laser frequency stabilization by Doppler-free magnetic dichroism,” Appl. Phys. B 75(6-7), 613–619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Javan, O. Kocharovskaya, H. Lee, and M. O. Scully, “Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 013805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” Prog. Opt. 35, 257–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, “A wall-collision-induced Ramsey resonance,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

1990 (1)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear Optical Processes Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriolis, “An experimental method for the observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Nuovo Cim. 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Affolderbach, C.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akulshin, A. M.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriolis, “An experimental method for the observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Nuovo Cim. 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Andreeva, C.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” Prog. Opt. 35, 257–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arsenovic, D.

M. Radonjić, D. Arsenović, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Coherent population trapping linewidths for open transitions: Cases of different transverse laser intensity distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, S.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belfi, J.

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, G.

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, V.

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burchianti, A.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cartaleva, S.

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheron, B.

H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dancheva, Y.

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Emile, O.

H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, J. E.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear Optical Processes Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gawlik, W.

G. Wasik, W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and W. Zawadzki, “Laser frequency stabilization by Doppler-free magnetic dichroism,” Appl. Phys. B 75(6-7), 613–619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, H.

H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godone, A.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gozzini, A.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriolis, “An experimental method for the observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Nuovo Cim. 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Grujic, Z.

M. Radonjić, D. Arsenović, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Coherent population trapping linewidths for open transitions: Cases of different transverse laser intensity distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grujic, Z. D.

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear Optical Processes Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear Optical Processes Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javan, A.

A. Javan, O. Kocharovskaya, H. Lee, and M. O. Scully, “Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 013805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jelenkovic, B. M.

M. Radonjić, D. Arsenović, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Coherent population trapping linewidths for open transitions: Cases of different transverse laser intensity distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Krmpot, M. M. Mijailović, B. M. Panić, D. V. Lukić, A. G. Kovacević, D. V. Pantelić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Sub-Doppler absorption narrowing in atomic vapor at two intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1448–1456 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanorsky, S. I.

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, “A wall-collision-induced Ramsey resonance,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

Karaulanov, T.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kocharovskaya, O.

A. Javan, O. Kocharovskaya, H. Lee, and M. O. Scully, “Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 013805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kovacevic, A.

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kovacevic, A. G.

Krmpot, A. J.

Le Floch, A.

H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

A. Javan, O. Kocharovskaya, H. Lee, and M. O. Scully, “Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 013805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levi, F.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lezama, A.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lukic, D. V.

Marinelli, C.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, E.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Micalizio, S.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mijailovic, M.

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mijailovic, M. M.

Mileti, G.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Modugno, G.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriolis, “An experimental method for the observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Nuovo Cim. 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nasyrov, K.

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nikolic, M.

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Diffusion-Induced Ramsey Narrowing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orriolis, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriolis, “An experimental method for the observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Nuovo Cim. 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Panic, B. M.

Pantelic, D. V.

Phillips, D. F.

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Diffusion-Induced Ramsey Narrowing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radonjic, M.

M. Radonjić, D. Arsenović, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Coherent population trapping linewidths for open transitions: Cases of different transverse laser intensity distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

A. Javan, O. Kocharovskaya, H. Lee, and M. O. Scully, “Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 013805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skalla, J.

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, “A wall-collision-induced Ramsey resonance,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

Slavov, D.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stahler, M.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taichenachev, A. V.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tumaikin, A. M.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Diffusion-Induced Ramsey Narrowing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wasik, G.

G. Wasik, W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and W. Zawadzki, “Laser frequency stabilization by Doppler-free magnetic dichroism,” Appl. Phys. B 75(6-7), 613–619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weis, A.

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, “A wall-collision-induced Ramsey resonance,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

Wynands, R.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Diffusion-Induced Ramsey Narrowing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. Y.

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V. I.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zachorowski, J.

G. Wasik, W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and W. Zawadzki, “Laser frequency stabilization by Doppler-free magnetic dichroism,” Appl. Phys. B 75(6-7), 613–619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, W.

G. Wasik, W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and W. Zawadzki, “Laser frequency stabilization by Doppler-free magnetic dichroism,” Appl. Phys. B 75(6-7), 613–619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, “A wall-collision-induced Ramsey resonance,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, “Light shift suppression in laser optically pumped vapour-cell atomic frequency standards,” Appl. Phys. B 80(7), 841–848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wasik, W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and W. Zawadzki, “Laser frequency stabilization by Doppler-free magnetic dichroism,” Appl. Phys. B 75(6-7), 613–619 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Lineshape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12(1), 53–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. B (1)

J. Belfi, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, and L. Moi, “Cesium coherent population trapping magnetometer for cardiosignal detection in an unshielded environment,” J. Opt. Soc. B 24(9), 2357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cim. (1)

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriolis, “An experimental method for the observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Nuovo Cim. 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, M. Stahler, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “Nonliear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 024501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Radonjić, D. Arsenović, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Coherent population trapping linewidths for open transitions: Cases of different transverse laser intensity distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Grujić, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, A. Kovačević, M. Nikolić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Dark Raman resonances due to Ramsey interference in vacuum vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, V. Biancalana, A. Burchianti, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, and K. Nasyrov, “Coherent spectroscopy of degenerate two-level systems in Cs,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 502 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Javan, O. Kocharovskaya, H. Lee, and M. O. Scully, “Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 66(1), 013805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Y. Xiao, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Diffusion-Induced Ramsey Narrowing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gilles, B. Cheron, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, and A. Le Floch, “Rabi-Lorentzian profile of an Atomic Resonance Obtained with Gaussian Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1175–1178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear Optical Processes Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Opt. (1)

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” Prog. Opt. 35, 257–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Moruzzi and F. Strumia, “The Hanle effect and level crossing spectroscopy,” (Plenum Press 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The aperture at translation stage allows only selected parts of the laser beam to reach detector, while the rest is blocked. ECDL – External Cavity Diode Laser, OI – Optical Isolator, DDAVLL – Doppler-free Dichroic Atomic Vapor Laser Lock, VNDF – Variable Neutral Density Filter, SMF – Single Mode Fiber, FC – Fiber Collimator, P – Polarizer, BE – Beam Expander, PD – Photodiode. Inset: The energy-level diagram for magnetic sublevels of the Fg=2 → Fe=1 transition where solid lines represent linearly polarized laser light coupling Zeeman sublevels and dotted lines correspond to the de-excitation from excited levels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental (a) and theoretical (b) Hanle EIT resonances obtained from the small parts of the Gaussian beam. The green, the red and the blue curves are for r = 0 mm, 0.75 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively where r is the radial distance of the aperture from the beam center. The beam diameter is 3 mm and the total intensity is 0.5 mW/cm2. Theoretical results were normalized to the experimental results such that peak values at r = 0 mm are equal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated contribution of outgoing (green), incoming (red) and both outgoing and incoming (blue) atoms to the Hanle EIT resonances for two distances from the laser beam center: r = 1.00 mm (a) and r = 1.75 mm (b). The total laser intensity is 3 mW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental (a) and theoretical (b) Hanle EIT linewidths for the different positions r of the aperture along the laser beam diameter. The blue, the red, and the green curves are for the intensities I = 15 mW/cm2, 2 mW/cm2, and 0.5 mW/cm2, respectively. The dashed bars in (a) represent the Hanle EIT linewidths obtained by detecting the whole laser beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The experimental Hanle EIT resonances obtained when the whole beam is detected (green curve) and when the central part of the beam is blocked in front of the detector (red curve). In (b) and (c) linewidth and contrast of the EIT versus laser intensity are given for the whole beam (green) and for the beam with blocked central part (red). The central part was blocked by circular mask of diameter d = 2.2 mm. The laser intensity is 3 mW/cm2.

Equations (4)

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I ( r ) = I 0 exp ( 2 r 2 / r 0 2 ) ,
P ( B ; r ) = n Tr ( ρ ( B ; r ) e r ^ ) .
E ( B ; r , z ) z = i ω 0 2 ϵ 0 c P ( B ; r , z ) ,
E ( B ; r , z = L ) = E ( B ; r , z = 0 ) + i ω 0 2 ϵ 0 c P ( B ; r ) L ,

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