Abstract

Blue GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the shape of cuboids and circular disks have been fabricated by laser micromachining. The proposed circular geometry serves to enhance overall light extraction on a macro-scale and to improve uniformity of the emission pattern due to the rotational symmetry of the chip. Analysis of the chip shaping effect is carried out by ray-tracing simulations and further supported with mathematical modeling using ideal LED models, and subsequently verified with fabricated devices. In comparison, a 10% improvement in overall emission was observed for circular LEDs over the regular cuboids, consistent with simulations and calculations. The measured emission pattern from the circular LED confirms the axial symmetry of the emission beam.

© 2009 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4483–4485 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and A. Ilegems, “Analytical Calculation of the Extraction Efficiency of Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes for Display and Fiber Coupling Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 207–218 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Laser Micro-machining of Optical Microstructures with Inclined Sidewall Profile,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1048–1052 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Laser Micro-machining of Optical Microstructures with Inclined Sidewall Profile,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1048–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4483–4485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and A. Ilegems, “Analytical Calculation of the Extraction Efficiency of Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes for Display and Fiber Coupling Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 207–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Laser Micro-machining of Optical Microstructures with Inclined Sidewall Profile,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1048–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4483–4485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4483–4485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P. R.

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4483–4485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W. Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. S.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Y. L.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. Z.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B. W.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hui, K. N.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, A.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and A. Ilegems, “Analytical Calculation of the Extraction Efficiency of Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes for Display and Fiber Coupling Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 207–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Juang, F. S.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, P. T.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Laser Micro-machining of Optical Microstructures with Inclined Sidewall Profile,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1048–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. D.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lei, P. H.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leung, C. H.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. W.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. S.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C. Y.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. W.

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4483–4485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. N.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Royo, P.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and A. Ilegems, “Analytical Calculation of the Extraction Efficiency of Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes for Display and Fiber Coupling Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 207–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R. P.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and A. Ilegems, “Analytical Calculation of the Extraction Efficiency of Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes for Display and Fiber Coupling Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 207–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Laser Micro-machining of Optical Microstructures with Inclined Sidewall Profile,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1048–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K. Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4483–4485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and A. Ilegems, “Analytical Calculation of the Extraction Efficiency of Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes for Display and Fiber Coupling Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 207–218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side-surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1406–1408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical Shaping of InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Laser Micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22 degrees undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Laser Micro-machining of Optical Microstructures with Inclined Sidewall Profile,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1048–1052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics