Abstract

Tuning of the resonant wavelength of a single hole defect cavity in planar photonic crystals was demonstrated using transmission spectroscopy. Local post-production processing of single holes in a planar photonic crystal is carried out after selectively opening a masking layer by focused ion beam milling. The resonance was blue-shifted by enlargement of selected holes using local wet chemical etching and red-shifted by infiltration with liquid crystals. This method can be applied to precisely control the resonant frequency, and can also be used for mode selective tuning.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G. C.

D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, Postfabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal microcavities in InAs/InP quantum dot membranes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 151107 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Askari, M.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ay, F.

W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic nanocavities by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 041118 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balet, L.

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Balog, S.

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Benotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Topol’anc̆ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P.-C. Yu, Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multichannel waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1143 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Birner, A.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Bog, U.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broer, D. J.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Brönnimann, R.

P. M. Nellen, V. Callegari, and R. Brönnimann, FIB-milling of photonic structures and sputtering simulation, Microelectron. Eng.83, 1805 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration, Opt. Lett.29, 2858 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Callegari, V.

P. M. Nellen, P. Strasser, V. Callegari, R. Wüest, D. Erni, and F. Robin, Focused ion beam modifications of indium phosphide photonic crystals, Microelec. Eng.84, 1244 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Nellen, V. Callegari, and R. Brönnimann, FIB-milling of photonic structures and sputtering simulation, Microelectron. Eng.83, 1805 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlström, C. F.

C. F. Carlström, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. W. van der Heijden, H. W. M. Salemink, and E van der Drift, Cl2/O2-inductively coupled plasma etching of deep hole-type photonic crystals in InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24, L6 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Carpentiero, A.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Cortaberria Sanz, D.

M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
[CrossRef]

Cryan, M. J.

M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, Postfabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal microcavities in InAs/InP quantum dot membranes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 151107 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, R. M.

W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

De Vittorio, M.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Dreiser, J.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, L. A.

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunham, S. N.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summersa, Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 181108 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Kallassi, P.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

P. M. Nellen, P. Strasser, V. Callegari, R. Wüest, D. Erni, and F. Robin, Focused ion beam modifications of indium phosphide photonic crystals, Microelec. Eng.84, 1244 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Faraon, A.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III–V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2767 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Sünner, R. Herrmann, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Fine-tuning of GaAs photonic crystal cavities by digital etching, MicroElec. Eng.84, 1405 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Francardi, M.

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, Postfabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal microcavities in InAs/InP quantum dot membranes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 151107 ( 2005).
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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam, Opt. Express13, 3079 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
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E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summersa, Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 181108 ( 2006).
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P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
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E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summersa, Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 181108 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, R.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heard, P. J.

M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
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K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
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K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic nanocavities by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 041118 ( 2006).
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S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration, Opt. Lett.29, 2858 ( 2004).
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Herrmann, R.

T. Sünner, R. Herrmann, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Fine-tuning of GaAs photonic crystal cavities by digital etching, MicroElec. Eng.84, 1405 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M.

M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
[CrossRef]

Högerle, C.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic nanocavities by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 041118 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Hopman, W. C. L.

W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Hotchkiss, P. J.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic nanocavities by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 041118 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic nanocavities by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 041118 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
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M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
[CrossRef]

Jamois, C.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2008.

John, S.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2008.

Jones, S. C.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

T. Sünner, R. Herrmann, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Fine-tuning of GaAs photonic crystal cavities by digital etching, MicroElec. Eng.84, 1405 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III–V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2767 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. F. Carlström, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. W. van der Heijden, H. W. M. Salemink, and E van der Drift, Cl2/O2-inductively coupled plasma etching of deep hole-type photonic crystals in InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24, L6 ( 2006).
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R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
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R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 973 ( 2008).
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M.-K. Seo, H.-G. Park, J.-K. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, Controlled sub-nanometer tuning of photonic crystal resonator by carbonaceous nano-dots, Opt. Express16, 9829 ( 2008).
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Kim, S.-H.

M.-K. Seo, H.-G. Park, J.-K. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, Controlled sub-nanometer tuning of photonic crystal resonator by carbonaceous nano-dots, Opt. Express16, 9829 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzerow, H.-S. R.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Kjellander, B. K. C.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Klopf, F.

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III–V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2767 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolodrubetz, M.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Thomas, N.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Seo, H.-G. Park, J.-K. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, Controlled sub-nanometer tuning of photonic crystal resonator by carbonaceous nano-dots, Opt. Express16, 9829 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, V.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, S. W.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, D.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, A.

T. Sünner, R. Herrmann, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Fine-tuning of GaAs photonic crystal cavities by digital etching, MicroElec. Eng.84, 1405 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 4648 ( 2003).
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Luther-Davies, B.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam, Opt. Express13, 3079 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madden, S.

D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam, Opt. Express13, 3079 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Marsmann, H.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Martz, J.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthias, H.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2008.

Mertens, G.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Mingaleev, S. F.

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration, Opt. Lett.29, 2858 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Momeni, B.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondia, J. P.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, J.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Neff, C. W.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summersa, Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 181108 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

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P. M. Nellen, V. Callegari, and R. Brönnimann, FIB-milling of photonic structures and sputtering simulation, Microelectron. Eng.83, 1805 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Nellen, P. Strasser, V. Callegari, R. Wüest, D. Erni, and F. Robin, Focused ion beam modifications of indium phosphide photonic crystals, Microelec. Eng.84, 1244 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Nesch, F.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.-G.

M.-K. Seo, H.-G. Park, J.-K. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, Controlled sub-nanometer tuning of photonic crystal resonator by carbonaceous nano-dots, Opt. Express16, 9829 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passaseo, A.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P.M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Poole, P. J.

D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, Postfabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal microcavities in InAs/InP quantum dot membranes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 151107 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 4648 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reithmaier, J. P.

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III–V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2767 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Robin, F.

P. M. Nellen, P. Strasser, V. Callegari, R. Wüest, D. Erni, and F. Robin, Focused ion beam modifications of indium phosphide photonic crystals, Microelec. Eng.84, 1244 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Röder, T.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Rorison, J. M.

M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Sabarinathan, J.

J. Topol’anc̆ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P.-C. Yu, Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multichannel waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1143 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Salemink, H. W. M.

C. F. Carlström, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. W. van der Heijden, H. W. M. Salemink, and E van der Drift, Cl2/O2-inductively coupled plasma etching of deep hole-type photonic crystals in InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24, L6 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 4648 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Schillinger, M.

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration, Opt. Lett.29, 2858 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, Ch.

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III–V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2767 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S. L.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 973 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M.-K.

M.-K. Seo, H.-G. Park, J.-K. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, Controlled sub-nanometer tuning of photonic crystal resonator by carbonaceous nano-dots, Opt. Express16, 9829 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L. C.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snijders, J. A. P.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, N.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Stomeo, T.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

P. M. Nellen, P. Strasser, V. Callegari, R. Wüest, D. Erni, and F. Robin, Focused ion beam modifications of indium phosphide photonic crystals, Microelec. Eng.84, 1244 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Summersa, C. J.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summersa, Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 181108 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Sünner, T.

T. Sünner, R. Herrmann, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Fine-tuning of GaAs photonic crystal cavities by digital etching, MicroElec. Eng.84, 1405 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamboli, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P.M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021108 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Tay, S.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, L.

M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
[CrossRef]

Tjerkstra, R. W.

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 973 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Todaro, M. T.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Topol’anc?ik, J.

J. Topol’anc̆ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P.-C. Yu, Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multichannel waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1143 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Türck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Drift, E

C. F. Carlström, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. W. van der Heijden, H. W. M. Salemink, and E van der Drift, Cl2/O2-inductively coupled plasma etching of deep hole-type photonic crystals in InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24, L6 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Drift, E.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, R.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlström, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. W. van der Heijden, H. W. M. Salemink, and E van der Drift, Cl2/O2-inductively coupled plasma etching of deep hole-type photonic crystals in InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24, L6 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, R. W.

C. F. Carlström, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. W. van der Heijden, H. W. M. Salemink, and E van der Drift, Cl2/O2-inductively coupled plasma etching of deep hole-type photonic crystals in InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24, L6 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Visimberga, G.

T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Vos, W. L.

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 973 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

VuCkovic, J.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H.-S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.83 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Benotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, Rewritable photonic circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 211117 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

Wild, B.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. L.

D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, Postfabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal microcavities in InAs/InP quantum dot membranes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 151107 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2008.

Witzens, J.

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P. M. Nellen, P. Strasser, V. Callegari, R. Wüest, D. Erni, and F. Robin, Focused ion beam modifications of indium phosphide photonic crystals, Microelec. Eng.84, 1244 ( 2007).
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M.-K. Seo, H.-G. Park, J.-K. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, Controlled sub-nanometer tuning of photonic crystal resonator by carbonaceous nano-dots, Opt. Express16, 9829 ( 2008).
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J. Topol’anc̆ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P.-C. Yu, Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multichannel waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1143 ( 2003).
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M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
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Zabelin, V.

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
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J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
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R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
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P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
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P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee”, Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 121103, ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities, Opt. Express16, 15887 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1562 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoğlu, Tuning photonic nanocavities by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 041118 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Seo, H.-G. Park, J.-K. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, Controlled sub-nanometer tuning of photonic crystal resonator by carbonaceous nano-dots, Opt. Express16, 9829 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique, J. Quantum Elec.38, 786 ( 2002).
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C. F. Carlström, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. W. van der Heijden, H. W. M. Salemink, and E van der Drift, Cl2/O2-inductively coupled plasma etching of deep hole-type photonic crystals in InP, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24, L6 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Topol’anc̆ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P.-C. Yu, Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multichannel waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1143 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26, 973 ( 2008).
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W. C. L. Hopman, F. Ay, W. Hu, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon, Nanotechnol.18, 195305 ( 2007).
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M. J. Cryan, M. Hill, D. Cortaberria Sanz, P. S. Ivanov, P. J. Heard, L. Tian, S. Yu, and J. M. Rorison, Focused ion beam-based fabrication of nanostructured photonic devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron11, 1266 ( 2005)
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D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam, Opt. Express13, 3079 ( 2005).
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T. Stomeo, G. Visimberga, M. T. Todaro, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, M. De Vittorio, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, and E. Di Fabrizio, Rapid prototyping of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices by a dual beam focused ion beam system, Microelec. Eng.78–79, 417 ( 2005).
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P. M. Nellen, P. Strasser, V. Callegari, R. Wüest, D. Erni, and F. Robin, Focused ion beam modifications of indium phosphide photonic crystals, Microelec. Eng.84, 1244 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Nellen, V. Callegari, and R. Brönnimann, FIB-milling of photonic structures and sputtering simulation, Microelectron. Eng.83, 1805 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summersa, Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 181108 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2008.

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration, Opt. Lett.29, 2858 ( 2004).
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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid crystal infiltration, Phys. Rev. B61, R2389 ( 2003).
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Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III–V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2767 ( 2003).
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M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 4648 ( 2003).
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B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laserOpt. Express13, 4699 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals, J. Appl. Phys.99, 103105 ( 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation, Opt. Lett.31, 1238 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers, Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 161112 ( 2006).
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P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2165 ( 2007).
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S. Tay, J. Thomas, B. Momeni, M. Askari, A. Adibi, P. J. Hotchkiss, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with nanoparticle/polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221109 ( 2007).
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A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. VuĊković, Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043123 ( 2008).
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D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, Postfabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal microcavities in InAs/InP quantum dot membranes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 151107 ( 2005).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

a) SEM picture of a cross-section of a PC covered by a SiN x masking layer. b) SEM picture of an array of individually targeted holes by FIB milling. SEM allows detection of the PC holes through the masking layer. On the right side the alignment markers are visible. The scale in both figures is indicated by the white bar, which has a length of 1 µm in both cases.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) 20 kV SEM picture after FIB opening of a hexagonal shape covering the holes adjacent to the H1-defect. The vertical arm of the cross-like structure is the access RWGs used for transmission spectroscopy. b) SEM picture of the hexagonal opening after the wet chemical etching process, showing the six opened PC holes. The four dark squares are the markers used for the alignment procedure. The holes situated below the thicker part of the mask remain closed. The scale in both figures is indicated by the white bar, which has a length of 1 µm in both cases.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

a) Transmission spectrum of the H1 defect resonance. The spectra are shown stacked for clarity. The ”after fabrication” line represents the measurement after fabrication. The ”after etching” line displays the resonance after 15 steps of digital etching increasing the hole diameter from 190 nm to 210 nm, giving rise to a blue-shift of 40 nm (Δ a/λ~0.01). After filling (”LC filled” line) the opened and enlarged holes with LC, the resonance displays a red-shift of 40 nm, approximately returning the resonance frequency to its original position. The change of the shape of the resonance for both ”after etching” and ”LC filled” with respect to the reference is due to the presence of the SiN x layer, which also covers the end-facets and acts as an anti-reflection coating. b) 3D-FDTD calculations of all the steps in the post-processing scheme. A ”completely filled” line was added to indicate the result of a failed experiment, i.e. all the holes of the PC are infiltrated. The calculations use the following parameters: a=380 nm, reference diameter=203 nm, after etch diameter=226 nm, LC filled effective refractive index of the holes=1.41, corresponding to a LC filling efficiency of ~75%.

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