Abstract

High speed modulation based on a compact silicon ring resonator operating in depletion mode is demonstrated. The device exhibits an electrical small signal bandwidth of 19GHz. The device is therefore a candidate for highly compact, wide bandwidth modulators for a variety of applications.

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References

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  1. R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8845–8854 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. You, M. Park, J. W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Surrey Ion Beam Centre implantation facility, http://www.ionbeamcentre.co.uk/ , CEA Leti, http://www-leti.cea.fr
  11. T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alzanki, T.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N. G.

Fédéli, J. M.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

Laval, S.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyan, P.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris, D.

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. W.

Park, M.

Png, C. E.

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Sealy, B. J.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

You, J. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Micro, IEEE (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Surrey Ion Beam Centre implantation facility, http://www.ionbeamcentre.co.uk/ , CEA Leti, http://www-leti.cea.fr

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section and (b) top view of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of ring resonator based modulator with a 5 microns ring radius (a) before and (b) for different radius size after contacts deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental ring resonator transmission with no bias. (b) Experimental effective index variation as a function of reverse bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized optical response as a function of frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Junction alignment error in nm against effective index change for increasing reverse voltages in volts.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Junction alignment error against effective index change for a 10 volt reverse voltage with decreasing antimony activation.

Equations (1)

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Δ n e f f = Δ λ λ n g

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