Abstract

Room temperature operating thermal detection for mid-infrared light based on ZnO subwavelength wires has been demonstrated. Electric resistance in ZnO wires increases linearly with the intensity of incident light. Noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5.8 μW/Hz1/2 (at 1 kHz) with typical response times as fast as 1.3 ms is obtained at 10.6-μm wavelength. The sensitivity and response time of the detector are also found to be insensitive to the ambient.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Herminjard, L. Sirigu, H. P. Herzig, E. Studemann, A. Crottini, J. P. Pellaux, T. Gresch, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor showing enhanced sensitivity for CO2 detection in the mid-infrared range,” Opt. Express 17(1), 293–303 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-1-293 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ploteau, P. Glouannec, and H. Noel, “Conception of thermoelectric flux meters for infrared radiation measurements in industrial furnaces,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 27(2-3), 674–681 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Simple fabrication of a ZnO nanowire photodetector with a fast photoresponse time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, V. Gupta, and K. Sreenivas, “Synthesis of photoconducting ZnO nano-needles using an unbalanced magnetron sputtered ZnO/Zn/ZnO multilayer structure,” Nanotechnology 16(8), 1167–1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldberger, D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanowire transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(1), 9–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Mehta, S. Shet, N. M. Ravindra, A. T. Fiory, and M. P. Lepselter, “Silicon-integrated uncooled infrared detectors: perspectives on thin films and microstructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 34(5), 484–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, “Performance of uncooled microcantilever thermal detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1134–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Garcia, R. Ambrosio, A. Torres, and A. Kosarev, “IR bolometers based on amorphous silicon germanium alloys,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338-340, 744–748 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Iborra, M. Clement, L. V. Herrero, and J. Sangrador, “IR uncooled bolometers based on amorphous GexSi1-xOy on silicon micromachined structures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11(4), 322–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Olorunyulemi, A. Birnboim, Y. Carmel, O. C. Wilson, and I. K. Lloyd, “Thermal conductivity of zinc oxide: from green to sintered state,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1249–1253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43(3-5), 187–210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735–737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, “On the optical band gap of zinc oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(10), 5447–5451 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Jackson, M. G. Sowa, and H. H. Mantsch, “Infrared spectroscopy: a new frontier in medicine,” Biophys. Chem. 68(1-3), 109–125 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. A. Robie, H. T. Haselton, and B. S. Hemingway, “Heat capacities and energies at 298.15 K of MgTiO3 (geikielite), ZnO (zincite), and ZnCO3 (smithsonite),” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 21(7), 743–749 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, and D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(3), 245–278 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. E.

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosio, R.

M. Garcia, R. Ambrosio, A. Torres, and A. Kosarev, “IR bolometers based on amorphous silicon germanium alloys,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338-340, 744–748 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aplin, D. P. R.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakin, A.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X. Y.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birnboim, A.

T. Olorunyulemi, A. Birnboim, Y. Carmel, O. C. Wilson, and I. K. Lloyd, “Thermal conductivity of zinc oxide: from green to sintered state,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1249–1253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, B.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735–737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carmel, Y.

T. Olorunyulemi, A. Birnboim, Y. Carmel, O. C. Wilson, and I. K. Lloyd, “Thermal conductivity of zinc oxide: from green to sintered state,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1249–1253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. R.

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, “On the optical band gap of zinc oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(10), 5447–5451 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R. M.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735–737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clement, M.

E. Iborra, M. Clement, L. V. Herrero, and J. Sangrador, “IR uncooled bolometers based on amorphous GexSi1-xOy on silicon micromachined structures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11(4), 322–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colling, P.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735–737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crottini, A.

Datskos, P. G.

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, “Performance of uncooled microcantilever thermal detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1134–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dayeh, S. A.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

S. Herminjard, L. Sirigu, H. P. Herzig, E. Studemann, A. Crottini, J. P. Pellaux, T. Gresch, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor showing enhanced sensitivity for CO2 detection in the mid-infrared range,” Opt. Express 17(1), 293–303 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-1-293 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fiory, A. T.

V. R. Mehta, S. Shet, N. M. Ravindra, A. T. Fiory, and M. P. Lepselter, “Silicon-integrated uncooled infrared detectors: perspectives on thin films and microstructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 34(5), 484–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

Gao, J. Y.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, T.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M.

M. Garcia, R. Ambrosio, A. Torres, and A. Kosarev, “IR bolometers based on amorphous silicon germanium alloys,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338-340, 744–748 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gila, B. P.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glouannec, P.

J. P. Ploteau, P. Glouannec, and H. Noel, “Conception of thermoelectric flux meters for infrared radiation measurements in industrial furnaces,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 27(2-3), 674–681 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

J. Goldberger, D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanowire transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(1), 9–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gölzhäuser, A.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gresch, T.

Gupta, V.

S. Kumar, V. Gupta, and K. Sreenivas, “Synthesis of photoconducting ZnO nano-needles using an unbalanced magnetron sputtered ZnO/Zn/ZnO multilayer structure,” Nanotechnology 16(8), 1167–1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hara, M.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haselton, H. T.

R. A. Robie, H. T. Haselton, and B. S. Hemingway, “Heat capacities and energies at 298.15 K of MgTiO3 (geikielite), ZnO (zincite), and ZnCO3 (smithsonite),” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 21(7), 743–749 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hemingway, B. S.

R. A. Robie, H. T. Haselton, and B. S. Hemingway, “Heat capacities and energies at 298.15 K of MgTiO3 (geikielite), ZnO (zincite), and ZnCO3 (smithsonite),” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 21(7), 743–749 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heo, Y. W.

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herminjard, S.

Herrero, L. V.

E. Iborra, M. Clement, L. V. Herrero, and J. Sangrador, “IR uncooled bolometers based on amorphous GexSi1-xOy on silicon micromachined structures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11(4), 322–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hidaka, S.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashihata, M.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinze, P.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G.

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, S. R.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iborra, E.

E. Iborra, M. Clement, L. V. Herrero, and J. Sangrador, “IR uncooled bolometers based on amorphous GexSi1-xOy on silicon micromachined structures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11(4), 322–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Imasaka, K.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, M.

M. Jackson, M. G. Sowa, and H. H. Mantsch, “Infrared spectroscopy: a new frontier in medicine,” Biophys. Chem. 68(1-3), 109–125 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janker, B.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B. H.

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B. S.

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karstad, K.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. T.

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosarev, A.

M. Garcia, R. Ambrosio, A. Torres, and A. Kosarev, “IR bolometers based on amorphous silicon germanium alloys,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338-340, 744–748 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, V. Gupta, and K. Sreenivas, “Synthesis of photoconducting ZnO nano-needles using an unbalanced magnetron sputtered ZnO/Zn/ZnO multilayer structure,” Nanotechnology 16(8), 1167–1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, Y.

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lam, W. W.

D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, and D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(3), 245–278 (1984).
[CrossRef]

LaRoche, J. R.

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, K.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrik, N. V.

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, “Performance of uncooled microcantilever thermal detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1134–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Law, J. B. K.

J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Simple fabrication of a ZnO nanowire photodetector with a fast photoresponse time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

J. Goldberger, D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanowire transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(1), 9–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leprince-Wang, Y.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepselter, M. P.

V. R. Mehta, S. Shet, N. M. Ravindra, A. T. Fiory, and M. P. Lepselter, “Silicon-integrated uncooled infrared detectors: perspectives on thin films and microstructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 34(5), 484–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. J.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q. H.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Z. M.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, I. K.

T. Olorunyulemi, A. Birnboim, Y. Carmel, O. C. Wilson, and I. K. Lloyd, “Thermal conductivity of zinc oxide: from green to sintered state,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1249–1253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X. Y.

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mantsch, H. H.

M. Jackson, M. G. Sowa, and H. H. Mantsch, “Infrared spectroscopy: a new frontier in medicine,” Biophys. Chem. 68(1-3), 109–125 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, V. R.

V. R. Mehta, S. Shet, N. M. Ravindra, A. T. Fiory, and M. P. Lepselter, “Silicon-integrated uncooled infrared detectors: perspectives on thin films and microstructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 34(5), 484–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Messer, B.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735–737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, N.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735–737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neikirk, D. P.

D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, and D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(3), 245–278 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Noel, H.

J. P. Ploteau, P. Glouannec, and H. Noel, “Conception of thermoelectric flux meters for infrared radiation measurements in industrial furnaces,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 27(2-3), 674–681 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norton, D. P.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oden, P. I.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olorunyulemi, T.

T. Olorunyulemi, A. Birnboim, Y. Carmel, O. C. Wilson, and I. K. Lloyd, “Thermal conductivity of zinc oxide: from green to sintered state,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1249–1253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pellaux, J. P.

Ploteau, J. P.

J. P. Ploteau, P. Glouannec, and H. Noel, “Conception of thermoelectric flux meters for infrared radiation measurements in industrial furnaces,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 27(2-3), 674–681 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rajic, S.

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, “Performance of uncooled microcantilever thermal detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1134–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ravindra, N. M.

V. R. Mehta, S. Shet, N. M. Ravindra, A. T. Fiory, and M. P. Lepselter, “Silicon-integrated uncooled infrared detectors: perspectives on thin films and microstructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 34(5), 484–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robie, R. A.

R. A. Robie, H. T. Haselton, and B. S. Hemingway, “Heat capacities and energies at 298.15 K of MgTiO3 (geikielite), ZnO (zincite), and ZnCO3 (smithsonite),” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 21(7), 743–749 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43(3-5), 187–210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Romani, R. W.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(6), 735–737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rutledge, D. B.

D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, and D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(3), 245–278 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sangrador, J.

E. Iborra, M. Clement, L. V. Herrero, and J. Sangrador, “IR uncooled bolometers based on amorphous GexSi1-xOy on silicon micromachined structures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11(4), 322–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlenker, E.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sha, J.

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shet, S.

V. R. Mehta, S. Shet, N. M. Ravindra, A. T. Fiory, and M. P. Lepselter, “Silicon-integrated uncooled infrared detectors: perspectives on thin films and microstructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 34(5), 484–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sirbuly, D. J.

J. Goldberger, D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanowire transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(1), 9–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirigu, L.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soci, C.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

M. Jackson, M. G. Sowa, and H. H. Mantsch, “Infrared spectroscopy: a new frontier in medicine,” Biophys. Chem. 68(1-3), 109–125 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sreenivas, K.

S. Kumar, V. Gupta, and K. Sreenivas, “Synthesis of photoconducting ZnO nano-needles using an unbalanced magnetron sputtered ZnO/Zn/ZnO multilayer structure,” Nanotechnology 16(8), 1167–1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srikant, V.

V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, “On the optical band gap of zinc oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(10), 5447–5451 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Studemann, E.

Suehiro, J.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thong, J. T. L.

J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Simple fabrication of a ZnO nanowire photodetector with a fast photoresponse time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tien, L. C.

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torres, A.

M. Garcia, R. Ambrosio, A. Torres, and A. Kosarev, “IR bolometers based on amorphous silicon germanium alloys,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338-340, 744–748 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, M.

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waag, A.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wachter, E. A.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. H.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Warmack, R. J.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, D. H.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
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K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wehmann, H.-H.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weimann, T.

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, O. C.

T. Olorunyulemi, A. Birnboim, Y. Carmel, O. C. Wilson, and I. K. Lloyd, “Thermal conductivity of zinc oxide: from green to sintered state,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1249–1253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, B.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
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Xiao, J.

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. R.

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
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H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

J. Goldberger, D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanowire transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(1), 9–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D. P.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. J.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. Z.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H. C.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123117 (2005).
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Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, D. P. Norton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, B. P. Gila, and S. J. Pearton, “Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 2002–2004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Simple fabrication of a ZnO nanowire photodetector with a fast photoresponse time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133114 (2006).
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S. E. Ahn, J. S. Lee, H. Kim, S. Kim, B. H. Kang, K. H. Kim, and G. T. Kim, “Photoresponse of sol-gel-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 5022–5024 (2004).
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P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, “Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2986–2988 (1996).
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Appl. Therm. Eng.

J. P. Ploteau, P. Glouannec, and H. Noel, “Conception of thermoelectric flux meters for infrared radiation measurements in industrial furnaces,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 27(2-3), 674–681 (2007).
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Biophys. Chem.

M. Jackson, M. G. Sowa, and H. H. Mantsch, “Infrared spectroscopy: a new frontier in medicine,” Biophys. Chem. 68(1-3), 109–125 (1997).
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Infrared Phys. Technol.

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43(3-5), 187–210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, X. Yi, G. Huang, J. Xiao, X. Li, and S. Chen, “IR microbolometer with self-supporting structure operating at room temperature,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45(1), 53–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, and D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(3), 245–278 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

T. Olorunyulemi, A. Birnboim, Y. Carmel, O. C. Wilson, and I. K. Lloyd, “Thermal conductivity of zinc oxide: from green to sintered state,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1249–1253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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V. Srikant and D. R. Clarke, “On the optical band gap of zinc oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(10), 5447–5451 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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J. Microelectromech. Syst.

E. Iborra, M. Clement, L. V. Herrero, and J. Sangrador, “IR uncooled bolometers based on amorphous GexSi1-xOy on silicon micromachined structures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11(4), 322–329 (2002).
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M. Garcia, R. Ambrosio, A. Torres, and A. Kosarev, “IR bolometers based on amorphous silicon germanium alloys,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338-340, 744–748 (2004).
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J. Phys. Chem. B

J. Goldberger, D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanowire transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(1), 9–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Lett.

J. Wang, J. Sha, Q. Yang, X. Y. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Yu, and D. R. Yang, “Carbon-assisted synthesis of aligned ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 59(21), 2710–2714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

Y. W. Heo, D. P. Norton, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. R. LaRoche, “ZnO nanowire growth and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 47(1-2), 1–47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

E. Schlenker, A. Bakin, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, D. H. Weber, A. Gölzhäuser, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 19(36), 365707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Suehiro, N. Nakagawa, S. Hidaka, M. Ueda, K. Imasaka, M. Higashihata, T. Okada, and M. Hara, “Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO anowire-based UV photosensor,” Nanotechnology 17(10), 2567–2573 (2006).
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S. Kumar, V. Gupta, and K. Sreenivas, “Synthesis of photoconducting ZnO nano-needles using an unbalanced magnetron sputtered ZnO/Zn/ZnO multilayer structure,” Nanotechnology 16(8), 1167–1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Detection of mid-IR radiation by sum frequency generation for free space optical communication,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(3-5), 537–544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, “Performance of uncooled microcantilever thermal detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1134–1148 (2004).
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Other

K. Kim, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Han, H. K. Kang, H. J. Shin, S. Moon, and J. H. Park, “3D-feed horn antenna-coupled microbolometer,” Sens. Actuator. A 110,196–205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A Computer Based Approach (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001).

J. Fonollosaa, M Carmona, J Santander, L Fonseca, M Moreno, and S. Marco, “Limits to the integration of filters and lenses on thermoelectric IR detectors by flip-chip techniques,” Sens. Actuator A 149,65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The SEM image of a 1.0-μm-diameter ZnO wire.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic structure (a) and SEM image of a ZnO wire on a grooved glass plate (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

I-V characteristics of a 2.9-μm-diameter, 520-μm-length ZnO wire as a function of 10.6-μm-wavelength light intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resistance of a single 2.0-μm-diameter, 760-μm-length ZnO wire device measured as a function of irradiation intensity. Inset is the frequency-dependent resistance changes of the ZnO wire.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response of a 2.0-μm-diameter, 760-μm-length ZnO wire to 10.6-μm-wavelength light irradiation measured in different atmospheres.

Equations (1)

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τ = H / G ,

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