Abstract

We investigate optical gain and penalty characteristics of a fiber-Bragg-grating based active optical-add-drop multiplexer (OADM). The active OADM has a two-stage structure and can amplify all the add/drop/thru channels simultaneously. The drop-channel penalty is a key parameter for the reliable operation of the active OADM. This penalty, caused mainly by multiple reflections within the active OADM, can be minimized adjusting pump powers. At the minimum drop-channel penalty, our active OADM shows fairly high optical gains as 15.5, 21, and 19.4 dB for the add, drop, and thru channels, respectively. Nevertheless, the penalties of these channels are comparable to the passive OADM.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, M. N. Zervas, M. K. Durkin, I. Barry, and A. B. Grudinin, “Power penalties due to in-band and out-of-band dispersion in FBG cascades,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(2), 506–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, “A bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexer with gain using multiport circulators, fiber Bragg gratings, and a single unidirectional optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 975–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles, “Lightwave applications of fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1391–1404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Y. Tam, “Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibres and erbium-doped fibre,” IEE Electron. Lett. 27(17), 1597–1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aksyuk, D. O.

Barry, I.

Basavanhally, V. A.

Bolle, C. A.

Chae, C. J.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, “A bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexer with gain using multiport circulators, fiber Bragg gratings, and a single unidirectional optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 975–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

Chien-Shing Pai, N. R.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Durkin, M. K.

Ellson, J.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles, “Lightwave applications of fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1391–1404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greywall, D. S.

Grudinin, A. B.

Inoue, Y.

Itoh, M.

Kamei, S.

Kaneko, A.

Kasahara, R.

Kolodner,

Lopez, F.

Low, P.

Marom, D. M.

Nasu, Y.

Neilson, D. T.

Newsome, G.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, I.

Pardo, M. E.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, Z.

Simon, Y.

Soref, R. A.

Srivastava, A. K.

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

H. Y. Tam, “Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibres and erbium-doped fibre,” IEE Electron. Lett. 27(17), 1597–1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tran, A. V.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, “A bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexer with gain using multiport circulators, fiber Bragg gratings, and a single unidirectional optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 975–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, “A bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexer with gain using multiport circulators, fiber Bragg gratings, and a single unidirectional optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 975–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Wolf, C.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Yamazaki, H.

Yla-Jarkko, K. H.

Zervas, M. N.

Zhou, W.

Zyskind, J. L.

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Y. Tam, “Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibres and erbium-doped fibre,” IEE Electron. Lett. 27(17), 1597–1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1667–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, “A bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexer with gain using multiport circulators, fiber Bragg gratings, and a single unidirectional optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 975–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

T. Veng and B. Palsdottir, “Investigation of new erbium doped fiber design with improved splice performance,” OFC 2005, paper OFB5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup to test an active FBG-based OADM. LD: laser diode, AWG: arrayed-waveguide grating, PPG: 10Gbps pulse-pattern generator, MOD: LiNbO3 modulator, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, SMF: single-mode fiber, VA: variable attenuator, OC: optical circulator, WSC: wavelength-selective coupler, FBG: fiber Bragg grating, EDF: erbium-doped fiber, BPF: band-pass filter, Rx: optical receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Gain and (b) power penalty curves for the drop channel in various pumping conditions. P1: PUMP1 output power, P2: PUMP2 output power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Gain and (b) power penalty curves for the add channel in various pumping conditions. P1: PUMP1 output power, P2: PUMP2 output power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Gain and (b) power penalty curves for the 4-th thru channel in various pumping conditions. P1: PUMP1 output power, P2: PUMP2 output power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total output power and power-penalty curves in terms of the total input power with P1 = 15 mW and P2 = 30 mW. The fourth thru channel is used for the thru channel measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surviving channel power traces of the active OADM when 7 out of 8 input-channels are switched periodically with or without the control channel.

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