Abstract

We present a method to make optical mosaic gratings that uses the exposure beams and the latent grating created by the previous exposure to adjust the lateral position and readjust the attitude of the substrate for the current exposure. As thus, it is a direct method without using any auxiliary reference grating(s) and it avoids the asynchronous drifts between otherwise independent exposure and alignment optical sub-systems. In addition, the method uses a red laser wavelength in the plane-mirror interferometers for the multi-dimensional attitude adjustment, so the adjustment can be done at leisure. The mosaic procedure is described step by step, and the principles to minimize substrate alignment errors are explained in detail. Experimentally we made several mosaics of (50 + 30) × 50 mm2 final grating area. The typical peak-valley and root-mean-square values of the measured −1st-order diffraction wavefront errors are 0.036 λ and 0.006 λ, respectively.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).
  2. J. Qiao, A. Kalb, M. J. Guardalben, G. King, D. Canning, and J. H. Kelly, “Large-aperture grating tiling by interferometry for petawatt chirped-pulse-amplification systems,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9562–9574 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9562 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).
  4. T. Jitsuno, S. Motokoshi, T. Okamoto, T. Mikami, D. Smith, M. L. Schattenburg, H. Kitamura, H. Matsuo, T. Kawasaki, K. Kondo, H. Shiraga, Y. Nakata, H. Habara, K. Tsubakimoto, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, N. Miyanaga, and K. Mima, “Development of 91 cm size gratings and mirrors for LEFX laser system,” in the fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, (Kobe, Japan, 2007). http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1742-6596/112/3/032002
  5. B. G. Turukhano, V. P. Gorelik, S. N. Kovalenko, and N. Turukhano, “Phase synthesis of a holographic metrological diffraction grating of unlimited length,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(4), 263–268 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Zeng and L. Li, “Optical mosaic gratings made by consecutive, phase-interlocked, holographic exposures using diffraction from latent fringes,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1081–1083 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

2001 (1)

M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).

1996 (1)

B. G. Turukhano, V. P. Gorelik, S. N. Kovalenko, and N. Turukhano, “Phase synthesis of a holographic metrological diffraction grating of unlimited length,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(4), 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Bishop, K. P.

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, N.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Borneis, S.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Britten, J.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Canning, D.

Chen, C. G.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).

Danson, C.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Dawson, J.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Gaspar, S. M.

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gorelik, V. P.

B. G. Turukhano, V. P. Gorelik, S. N. Kovalenko, and N. Turukhano, “Phase synthesis of a holographic metrological diffraction grating of unlimited length,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(4), 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guardalben, M. J.

Heilmann, R. K.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).

Hickman, K. C.

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, I.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Jungquist, R.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Kalb, A.

Kelly, J. H.

J. Qiao, A. Kalb, M. J. Guardalben, G. King, D. Canning, and J. H. Kelly, “Large-aperture grating tiling by interferometry for petawatt chirped-pulse-amplification systems,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9562–9574 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9562 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Kessler, T. J.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

King, G.

Konkola, P. T.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).

Kovalenko, S. N.

B. G. Turukhano, V. P. Gorelik, S. N. Kovalenko, and N. Turukhano, “Phase synthesis of a holographic metrological diffraction grating of unlimited length,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(4), 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kruschwitz, B.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Leblanc, C.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Legarrec, B.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Li, L.

McNeil, J. R.

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Milner, L. M.

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miyanaga, N.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Moses, E.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Naqvi, S. S. H.

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pati, G. S.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).

Qiao, J.

Rambo, P. K.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Schattenburg, M. L.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).

Schmid, A. W.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Turukhano, B. G.

B. G. Turukhano, V. P. Gorelik, S. N. Kovalenko, and N. Turukhano, “Phase synthesis of a holographic metrological diffraction grating of unlimited length,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(4), 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turukhano, N.

B. G. Turukhano, V. P. Gorelik, S. N. Kovalenko, and N. Turukhano, “Phase synthesis of a holographic metrological diffraction grating of unlimited length,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(4), 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Waxer, L. J.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Zeng, L.

Zuegel, J. D.

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Fusion Sci. Technol. (1)

J. D. Zuegel, S. Borneis, C. Barty, B. Legarrec, C. Danson, N. Miyanaga, P. K. Rambo, C. Leblanc, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, L. J. Waxer, J. H. Kelly, B. Kruschwitz, R. Jungquist, E. Moses, J. Britten, I. Jovanovic, J. Dawson, and N. Blanchot, “Laser challenges for fast ignition,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 453–482 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

B. G. Turukhano, V. P. Gorelik, S. N. Kovalenko, and N. Turukhano, “Phase synthesis of a holographic metrological diffraction grating of unlimited length,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(4), 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. M. Milner, K. C. Hickman, S. M. Gaspar, K. P. Bishop, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 1673, 274–283 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Schattenburg, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, P. T. Konkola, and G. S. Pati, “Progress towards a general grating patterning technology using phase-locked scanning beams,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 61–67 (2001).

Other (1)

T. Jitsuno, S. Motokoshi, T. Okamoto, T. Mikami, D. Smith, M. L. Schattenburg, H. Kitamura, H. Matsuo, T. Kawasaki, K. Kondo, H. Shiraga, Y. Nakata, H. Habara, K. Tsubakimoto, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, N. Miyanaga, and K. Mima, “Development of 91 cm size gratings and mirrors for LEFX laser system,” in the fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, (Kobe, Japan, 2007). http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1742-6596/112/3/032002

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three mosaic errors: Δθz, Δθy, and Δx. The dashed frame and the grey block represent the substrate positions before and after moving, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for making an optical mosaic grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dual-beam interferometer fringes (S1 fringes) for attitude adjustment. (a) Reference fringes; (b) Unadjusted fringes; (c) Fringes with only Δθy error adjusted; (d) Fringes with Δθy error and position of M4 adjusted, but a small Δθz error remains; (e) Fringes after full attitude adjustment. All left half frames are the same as that in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative positions of the projections of some optical elements in the directions of beams I1 and I2 onto the grating substrate G0. (a) After the first exposure is taken. (b) After the wedged beamsplitter WBS and the attenuator A0 are inserted. (c) After G0 is repositioned for the second exposure. (d) After the beam blocks B1 and B2 are inserted and the second exposure is taken.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Half-image pairs of S1 fringes (a) and C fringes (b), Fizeau interferogram (c), and wavefront map (d) of a mosaic grating with an intentional adjustment error of Δθz = 1 μrad. The peak-valley and root-mean-square errors in (d) are 0.040 λ and 0.009 λ, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Half-image pair of C fringes (a), Fizeau interferogram (b), and wavefront map (c) of a mosaic grating with an intentional adjustment error of δp = 0.4 λ. The peak-valley and root-mean-square errors in (c) are 0.220 λ and 0.026 λ, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Half-image pairs of S1 fringes (a) and C fringes (b), Fizeau interferogram (c), wavefront map (d), and focal intensity image (e) of a good mosaic grating. The peak-valley and root-mean-square errors in (d) are 0.036 λ and 0.006 λ, respectively. The two errors for the reflection wavefront of the substrate (f) are 0.055 λ and 0.009 λ, respectively. The ratio of the focal spot energy in the white circle to that of the entire focal spot in (e) is 0.97.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Interferograms and wavefront maps of a mosaic grating [(a) and (b)] and a substrate surface [(c) and (d)] on which the mosaic grating was made. The peak-valley wavefront error of the −1st-order grating diffraction and that of the substrate are 0.115 λ and 0.118 λ, respectively.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ v = Δθ z h d λ ,
δ p = λ   min { mod ( Δ x / d , 1 ) , 1 mod ( Δ x / d , 1 ) } ,
| Δ θ z | =   λ 2 n e 1     Δ p e 2   λ 2 D     Δ p e .
( Δ θ z ) m = λ 2 D ( Δ p e ) m .
( Δ θ z ) m = λ 2 L ( Δ p e ) m .

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