Abstract

We develop a simple method to improve external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of OLEDs under a wide range of current density. An insulating inorganic ultrathin layer (LiF) was sandwiched between exciton formation layer and electron transporting layer. A maximal EQE of 5.9% in a DCM based fluorescent OLED, which far exceeds the theoretical upper limit of 3.7%, was obtained under the current density of 487 mA/cm2 with a brightness maximum of 76740 cd/m2. The similar electroluminescence properties were also obtained in a C545T based green OLED using this method. The overall enhancement of EQE, and the nonlinear enhancement of EQE at high current density in these devices are attributed to the effect of electrical field on excitons.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. C. Tong and K. C. Hwang, “Enhancement of OLED Efficiencies and High-Voltage Stabilities of Light-Emitting Materials by Deuteration,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(8), 3490–3494 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
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  12. T. Matsushima and C. Adachi, “Extremely low voltage organic light-emitting diodes with p-doped alpha-sexithiophene hole transport and n-doped phenyldipyrenylphosphine oxide electron transport layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zhang, Y. Dai, D. Ma, and H. Zhang, “High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Simple Accurate System for Measuring Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Efficiency in Organic Solid-State Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7729–7730 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
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  17. H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 026105 (2007).
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  18. S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 213506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Yang and J. Shen, “Doping effects in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(4), 2105–2111 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic Semiconductor Lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Y. Dai, D. Ma, and H. Zhang, “High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Tong and K. C. Hwang, “Enhancement of OLED Efficiencies and High-Voltage Stabilities of Light-Emitting Materials by Deuteration,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(8), 3490–3494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsushima and C. Adachi, “Extremely low voltage organic light-emitting diodes with p-doped alpha-sexithiophene hole transport and n-doped phenyldipyrenylphosphine oxide electron transport layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 213506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Simple Accurate System for Measuring Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Efficiency in Organic Solid-State Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7729–7730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. Tessler, “Lasers Based on Semiconducting Organic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heeger, Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Improved quantum efficiency for electroluminescence in semiconducting polymers,” Nature 397(6718), 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Yang and J. Shen, “Doping effects in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(4), 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

T. Matsushima and C. Adachi, “Extremely low voltage organic light-emitting diodes with p-doped alpha-sexithiophene hole transport and n-doped phenyldipyrenylphosphine oxide electron transport layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 213506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Simple Accurate System for Measuring Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Efficiency in Organic Solid-State Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7729–7730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brédas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

A. J. Heeger, Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Improved quantum efficiency for electroluminescence in semiconducting polymers,” Nature 397(6718), 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-Q.

S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Y. Dai, D. Ma, and H. Zhang, “High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Difley, S.

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gehlhaar, R.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamaa, Y.

K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

A. J. Heeger, Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Improved quantum efficiency for electroluminescence in semiconducting polymers,” Nature 397(6718), 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, K. C.

C. C. Tong and K. C. Hwang, “Enhancement of OLED Efficiencies and High-Voltage Stabilities of Light-Emitting Materials by Deuteration,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(8), 3490–3494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Simple Accurate System for Measuring Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Efficiency in Organic Solid-State Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7729–7730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschorreck, M.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, M.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Liu, X.

Logdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lyssenko, V. G.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

H. Zhang, Y. Dai, D. Ma, and H. Zhang, “High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, T.

T. Matsushima and C. Adachi, “Extremely low voltage organic light-emitting diodes with p-doped alpha-sexithiophene hole transport and n-doped phenyldipyrenylphosphine oxide electron transport layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakanotani, H.

H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 213506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okumoto, K.

K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parker, I. D.

A. J. Heeger, Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Improved quantum efficiency for electroluminescence in semiconducting polymers,” Nature 397(6718), 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, K.

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic Semiconductor Lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasabe, H.

H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 213506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Simple Accurate System for Measuring Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Efficiency in Organic Solid-State Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7729–7730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Segal, M.

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, X.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

J. Yang and J. Shen, “Doping effects in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(4), 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, K.

K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shuai, Z.

S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C.

Swoboda, M.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, “Lasers Based on Semiconducting Organic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

Tong, C. C.

C. C. Tong and K. C. Hwang, “Enhancement of OLED Efficiencies and High-Voltage Stabilities of Light-Emitting Materials by Deuteration,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(8), 3490–3494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic Semiconductor Lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Voorhis, T.

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanslyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, P.

S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang and J. Shen, “Doping effects in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(4), 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

You, H.

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

A. J. Heeger, Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Improved quantum efficiency for electroluminescence in semiconducting polymers,” Nature 397(6718), 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

A. J. Heeger, Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Improved quantum efficiency for electroluminescence in semiconducting polymers,” Nature 397(6718), 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Y. Dai, D. Ma, and H. Zhang, “High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Y. Dai, D. Ma, and H. Zhang, “High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

N. Tessler, “Lasers Based on Semiconducting Organic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Nakanotani, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Singlet-singlet and singlet-heat annihilations in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes under steady-state high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 213506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsushima and C. Adachi, “Extremely low voltage organic light-emitting diodes with p-doped alpha-sexithiophene hole transport and n-doped phenyldipyrenylphosphine oxide electron transport layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Y. Dai, D. Ma, and H. Zhang, “High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okumoto, H. Kanno, Y. Hamaa, H. Takahashi, and K. Shibata, “Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic Semiconductor Lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang and J. Shen, “Doping effects in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(4), 2105–2111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

S. Qu, X. Chen, X. Shao, F. Li, H. Zhang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, Z. Yu, K. Wu, Y. Wang, and M. Li, “Self-assembly of highly luminescent bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives through electron donor–acceptor interactions in three-dimensional crystals, two-dimensional layers and mesophases,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(33), 3954–3964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

S. Yin, L. Chen, P. Xuan, K.-Q. Chen, and Z. Shuai, “Field Effect on the Singlet and Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic/Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(28), 9608–9613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. C. Tong and K. C. Hwang, “Enhancement of OLED Efficiencies and High-Voltage Stabilities of Light-Emitting Materials by Deuteration,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(8), 3490–3494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Simple Accurate System for Measuring Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Efficiency in Organic Solid-State Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7729–7730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

M. Segal, M. Singh, K. Rivoire, S. Difley, T. Van Voorhis, and M. A. Baldo, “Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 374–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

A. J. Heeger, Y. Cao, I. D. Parker, G. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Improved quantum efficiency for electroluminescence in semiconducting polymers,” Nature 397(6718), 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lǒgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The energy level diagram of the sample A

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Luminance and EQE vs current density of sample A (red curve) and B (blue curve). (b) EL spectra of sample A under different current density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) External quantum efficiency as a function of current density for sample C (red) and D (blue). (b) EL spectra of sample C under different current density.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current-voltage characteristics (a) and EL spectra (b) of sample A (red) and sample B (blue).

Equations (1)

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η e x t = η r ϕ f χ η p h

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