Abstract

We present the results of a study of flat and uniform organic electroluminescent (EL) layers produced using a simple premetered horizontal-dipping process. It is shown that this process can produce high quality organic semiconductor thin films by utilizing the downstream meniscus of the solution, which may be controlled by adjusting the gap height and the carrying speed. It is also shown that the organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) produced using this method exhibit a peak brightness in excess of 52,000 cd/m2 and a maximum efficiency of 24 cd/A, with a large active area. From these results, we show that this premetered process for solution coating offers considerable promise for the production of highly efficient, reliable, and large-area solution-processed OLEDs.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for Efficient Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ouyang, T.-F. Guo, Y. Yang, H. Higuchi, M. Yoshioka, and T. Nagatsuka, “Flexible Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by a Continuous Polymer Coating Process,” Adv. Mater. 14(12), 915–918 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet Printing of Polymers: State of the Art and Future Developments,” Adv. Mater. 16(3), 203–213 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, K.-C. Lee, and S.-F. Horng, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution processable organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet Printing of Polymers: State of the Art and Future Developments,” Adv. Mater. 16(3), 203–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for Efficient Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ouyang, T.-F. Guo, Y. Yang, H. Higuchi, M. Yoshioka, and T. Nagatsuka, “Flexible Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by a Continuous Polymer Coating Process,” Adv. Mater. 14(12), 915–918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen Printing for the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. W. Krozel, A. N. Palazoglu, and R. L. Powell, “Experimental observation of dip-coating phenomena and the prospect of using motion control to minimize fluid retention,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55(18), 3639–3650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of Screen Printing in the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. 12(17), 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochimica URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for Efficient Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birnstock, J.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. S.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V.-E.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution processable organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution processable organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Gans, B.-J.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet Printing of Polymers: State of the Art and Future Developments,” Adv. Mater. 16(3), 203–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duineveld, P. C.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet Printing of Polymers: State of the Art and Future Developments,” Adv. Mater. 16(3), 203–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for Efficient Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.-F.

J. Ouyang, T.-F. Guo, Y. Yang, H. Higuchi, M. Yoshioka, and T. Nagatsuka, “Flexible Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by a Continuous Polymer Coating Process,” Adv. Mater. 14(12), 915–918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.-Y.

He, G.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

J. Ouyang, T.-F. Guo, Y. Yang, H. Higuchi, M. Yoshioka, and T. Nagatsuka, “Flexible Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by a Continuous Polymer Coating Process,” Adv. Mater. 14(12), 915–918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horng, S.-F.

S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, K.-C. Lee, and S.-F. Horng, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G. E.

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen Printing for the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of Screen Printing in the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. 12(17), 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krozel, J. W.

J. W. Krozel, A. N. Palazoglu, and R. L. Powell, “Experimental observation of dip-coating phenomena and the prospect of using motion control to minimize fluid retention,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55(18), 3639–3650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution processable organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamansky, S.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochimica URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

Lee, C.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-C.

S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, K.-C. Lee, and S.-F. Horng, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levich, V. G.

L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochimica URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

Lim, J.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, M. K.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution processable organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.-F.

S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, K.-C. Lee, and S.-F. Horng, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuka, T.

J. Ouyang, T.-F. Guo, Y. Yang, H. Higuchi, M. Yoshioka, and T. Nagatsuka, “Flexible Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by a Continuous Polymer Coating Process,” Adv. Mater. 14(12), 915–918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. F.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. S.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, J.

J. Ouyang, T.-F. Guo, Y. Yang, H. Higuchi, M. Yoshioka, and T. Nagatsuka, “Flexible Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by a Continuous Polymer Coating Process,” Adv. Mater. 14(12), 915–918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palazoglu, A. N.

J. W. Krozel, A. N. Palazoglu, and R. L. Powell, “Experimental observation of dip-coating phenomena and the prospect of using motion control to minimize fluid retention,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55(18), 3639–3650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, D. A.

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of Screen Printing in the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. 12(17), 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

B. Park and M.-Y. Han, “Photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells fabricated by pre-metered coating process,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13830–13840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen Printing for the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of Screen Printing in the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. 12(17), 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poplavskyy, D.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution processable organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. L.

J. W. Krozel, A. N. Palazoglu, and R. L. Powell, “Experimental observation of dip-coating phenomena and the prospect of using motion control to minimize fluid retention,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55(18), 3639–3650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pudzich, R.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radspinner, R.

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen Printing for the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salbeck, J.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911–3913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, U. S.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet Printing of Polymers: State of the Art and Future Developments,” Adv. Mater. 16(3), 203–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shoustikov, A.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, S.

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M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph (left) with schematic illustration (right) of the premetered horizontal-dip (H-dip) coating process described herein: a cylindrical coating barrier (SUS steel) with a diameter R, a gap height h0 , and a carrying speed U. (b) Photograph of the photoluminescent spin-coated film (left, at 1000 rpm) and the H-dip-coated film (right) on patterned 2” substrates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Coated film thickness data of the EL layer as a function of carrying speed for two gap heights (0.9 and 0.8 mm). (b) Film thickness of the H-dip coated PEDOT:PSS layer as a function of carrying speed for two gap heights (0.9 and 0.8 mm). The solid curves show the theoretical predictions of the Landau & Levich equation [13,15].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Current density-voltage and luminance-voltage characteristics of the OLED made using the H-dipping process. (b) Current efficiency-voltage and power efficiency-voltage characteristics of the studied OLED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of the operating 7 × 7 OLED pixels made by the H-dipping method at 10 V on a glass substrate (2” × 2”).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of performance of OLEDs made by H-dipping process.

Equations (1)

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h =     1.34     ​ ( μ U σ ) 2 / 3 R d , n R d = ( x d 2 2 R + 2 h 0 ) h ,

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