Abstract

This study reports fabrication of white-emissive, tandem-type, hybrid organic/polymer light-emitting diodes (O/PLED). The tandem devices are made by stacking a blue-emissive OLED on a yellow-emissive phenyl-substituted poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer-based PLED and applying an organic oxide/Al/molybdenum oxide (MoO3) complex structure as a connecting structure or charge-generation layer (CGL). The organic oxide/Al/MoO3 CGL functions as an effective junction interface for the transport and injection of opposite charge carriers through the stacked configuration. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the tandem-type devices can be tuned by varying the intensity of the emission in each emissive component to yield the visible-range spectra from 400 to 750 nm, with Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.33) and a high color rendering capacity as used for illumination. The EL spectra also exhibit good color stability under various bias conditions. The tandem-type device of emission with chromaticity coordinates, (0.30, 0.31), has maximum brightness and luminous efficiency over 25,000 cd/m2 and ~4.2 cd/A, respectively.

© 2009 OSA

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  24. J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. W. Lee, T. Hoh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks, and D. L. Comfort, “Tandem organic light-emitting diode using hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in the intermediate connector,” Adv. Mater. 20(2), 324–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

M. H. Ho, T. M. Chen, P. C. Yeh, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient p-i-n white organic light emitting devices with tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer-based white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Hsieh, T. Y. Kuo, T. C. Wen, T. F. Guo, and Y. L. Lee, “High-efficiency polymer light-emitting diode via Al interfacial modification using polyurethane,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(29), L773–L776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Bright white organic light-emitting diodes based on two blue emitters with similar molecular structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Peng, Y. Mo, Q. Hou, and Y. Cao, “Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “High-efficiency white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with greenish-blue and red-emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(12), 2459–2461 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. I. Chao and S. A. Chen, “White light emission from exciplex in a bilayer device with two blue light- emitting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 426–428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Metal oxides as a hole-injecting layer for an organic electroluminescent device,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(11), 2750–2753 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Granström and O. Inganäs, “White light emission from a polymer blend light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 147–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “Single-layer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adamovich, V.

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blatchford, J. W.

D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J.

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Peng, Y. Mo, Q. Hou, and Y. Cao, “Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. M.

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. I.

C. I. Chao and S. A. Chen, “White light emission from exciplex in a bilayer device with two blue light- emitting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 426–428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

M. H. Ho, T. M. Chen, P. C. Yeh, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient p-i-n white organic light emitting devices with tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. A.

C. I. Chao and S. A. Chen, “White light emission from exciplex in a bilayer device with two blue light- emitting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 426–428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

M. H. Ho, T. M. Chen, P. C. Yeh, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient p-i-n white organic light emitting devices with tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. K.

T. W. Lee, T. Hoh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C. T.

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cocchi, M.

J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comfort, D. L.

L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks, and D. L. Comfort, “Tandem organic light-emitting diode using hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in the intermediate connector,” Adv. Mater. 20(2), 324–329 (2008).
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B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002).
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D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
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Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
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J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
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B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002).
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Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
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Fu, D. K.

D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. S.

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
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M. Granström and O. Inganäs, “White light emission from a polymer blend light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 147–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guan, R.

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Hsieh, T. Y. Kuo, T. C. Wen, T. F. Guo, and Y. L. Lee, “High-efficiency polymer light-emitting diode via Al interfacial modification using polyurethane,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(29), L773–L776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer-based white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hatwar, T. K.

L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks, and D. L. Comfort, “Tandem organic light-emitting diode using hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in the intermediate connector,” Adv. Mater. 20(2), 324–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, G. K.

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M. H.

M. H. Ho, T. M. Chen, P. C. Yeh, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient p-i-n white organic light emitting devices with tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoh, T.

T. W. Lee, T. Hoh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hongawa, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Horng, S. F.

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Xu, J. Peng, Y. Mo, Q. Hou, and Y. Cao, “Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W. J.

J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, S. N.

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Hsieh, T. Y. Kuo, T. C. Wen, T. F. Guo, and Y. L. Lee, “High-efficiency polymer light-emitting diode via Al interfacial modification using polyurethane,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(29), L773–L776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. S.

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y.-J.

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. C. A.

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. S.

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. W.

M. H. Ho, T. M. Chen, P. C. Yeh, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient p-i-n white organic light emitting devices with tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hyung, G. W.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, T.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “High-efficiency white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with greenish-blue and red-emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(12), 2459–2461 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

M. Granström and O. Inganäs, “White light emission from a polymer blend light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 147–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G. E.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer-based white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jessen, S. W.

D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jing, X.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, J.

J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kee, I. S.

Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kena-Cohen, S.

H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

T. W. Lee, T. Hoh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043301 (2008).
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J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “Single-layer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

T. W. Lee, T. Hoh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klubek, K. P.

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kluge, E.

H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C. W.

C. W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, I. H.

Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koh, K. H.

Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kreuder, W.

H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, T. Y.

S. N. Hsieh, T. Y. Kuo, T. C. Wen, T. F. Guo, and Y. L. Lee, “High-efficiency polymer light-emitting diode via Al interfacial modification using polyurethane,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(29), L773–L776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. H.

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. W.

T. W. Lee, T. Hoh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. G.

Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

S. N. Hsieh, T. Y. Kuo, T. C. Wen, T. F. Guo, and Y. L. Lee, “High-efficiency polymer light-emitting diode via Al interfacial modification using polyurethane,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(29), L773–L776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lei, G.

L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Bright white organic light-emitting diodes based on two blue emitters with similar molecular structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer-based white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. H.

J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. F.

Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L. S.

L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks, and D. L. Comfort, “Tandem organic light-emitting diode using hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in the intermediate connector,” Adv. Mater. 20(2), 324–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. C.

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacDiarmid, A. G.

D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H. F.

G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004).
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Mo, Y.

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S. Tokito, T. Iijima, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “High-efficiency white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with greenish-blue and red-emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(12), 2459–2461 (2003).
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H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
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J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
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Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
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L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks, and D. L. Comfort, “Tandem organic light-emitting diode using hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in the intermediate connector,” Adv. Mater. 20(2), 324–329 (2008).
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H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
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Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
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H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006).
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Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
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C. W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
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Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
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B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002).
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S. Tokito, T. Iijima, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “High-efficiency white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with greenish-blue and red-emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(12), 2459–2461 (2003).
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T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
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T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006).
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T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005).
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T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
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S. Tokito, T. Iijima, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “High-efficiency white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with greenish-blue and red-emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(12), 2459–2461 (2003).
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G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
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J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007).
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J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
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G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
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J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
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G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
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D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
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T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
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T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006).
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T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005).
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E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer-based white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
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J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007).
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T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006).
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J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
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J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
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J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Peng, Y. Mo, Q. Hou, and Y. Cao, “Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F. S.

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P. C.

M. H. Ho, T. M. Chen, P. C. Yeh, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient p-i-n white organic light emitting devices with tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233507 (2007).
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Yoon, S. S.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, H.

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (10)

H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks, and D. L. Comfort, “Tandem organic light-emitting diode using hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in the intermediate connector,” Adv. Mater. 20(2), 324–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer-based white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (20)

G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Chao and S. A. Chen, “White light emission from exciplex in a bilayer device with two blue light- emitting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 426–428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “Single-layer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “High-efficiency white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with greenish-blue and red-emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(12), 2459–2461 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007).
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M. Granström and O. Inganäs, “White light emission from a polymer blend light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 147–149 (1996).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic plot presents the configuration of the tandem-type device in this study

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The EL spectra obtained from (△) the yellow-emissive HY-PPV-based PLED and (◇) the blue-emissive OLED, individually fabricated on ITO/glass substrates. (b) The CIE chromaticity diagram that marks the CIE coordinates of the EL emissions from the (△) yellow- and (◇) blue-emissive devices. A straight line that connects these pairs of two CIE coordinates passes through the white-emissive zone near the (☒) CIE coordinates (0.33, 0.33) in the diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EL spectra of the stacked device with (◯) 30 Å (●) 60 Å (□) 90 Å thickness of the Al layer in the CGL, PEGDE(45 Å)/Al(X) Å)/MoO3(40 Å).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

I-L-V curves of the tandem-type, hybrid device with PEGDE(45 Å)/Al(60 Å)/MoO3(40 Å) as the CGL and 350 Å of NBP as the hole-transport layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Luminous efficiency versus the current density of the tandem-type, hybrid device with with (◯) 30 Å (●) 60 Å (□) 90 Å thickness of the Al layer in the CGL, PEGDE(45 Å)/Al(X) Å)/MoO3(40 Å), and 350 Å of NBP as the hole-transport layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EL spectra of the stacked device with ( + ) PEGDE(45 Å)/Al(60 Å), (▼) Al(60 Å)/MoO3(40 Å) and (▽) PEGDE(45 Å)/MoO3(40 Å) as the CGL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

EL spectra of the stacked devices of PEGDE(45 Å)/Al(60 Å)/MoO3(40 Å) as the CGL, but with (▲) 550 Å (●) 350 Å (■) 200 Å thickness of the NPB hole-transport layer in the blue-emissive top component. (✕) EL spectrum of a regular or commercialized, white-emissive inorganic LED lamp.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A photograph presents the white-emissive device fabricated in this study with CIE coordinates (0.33, 0.33).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The performance of the tandem-type, hybrid O/PLEDs fabricated with the different thicknesses of Al layers in the CGL.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The performance of the tandem-type, hybrid O/PLEDs fabricated with different CGL structures.

Tables Icon

Table 3 The performance of the tandem-type, hybrid O/PLEDs fabricated with the different thicknesses of NPB layers in the OLED component.

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