Abstract

An interferometer having resolution fourteen times higher than a conventional single-pass interferometer has been developed by creating multiple-pass optical path. To embody the multiple-pass optical configuration, a two-dimensional corner cube array block was designed, where its symmetric structure minimized the measurement error. The effect from the alignment error and the imperfection of corner cube is calculated and is in picometer level. An experiment proves that the proposed interferometer has optical resolution of approximate 45 nm and its nonlinearity is about 0.5 nm in peak-to-valley value.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, “Semiconductor fabrication - Pushing deep ultraviolet lithography to its limits,” Nat. Photonics 1, 629–631 ( 2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Pisani, “Multiple reflection Michelson interferometer with picometer resolution,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21558–21563, ( 2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. M. J. Downs and W. R. C. Rowley, “A proposed design for a polarization-insensitive optical interferometer system with subnanometric capability,” Precis. Eng. 15(4), 281–286 ( 1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. B. Eom, J. Y. Kim, and K. Jeong, “The dynamic compensation of nonlinearity in a homodyne laser interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1734–1738 ( 2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. L. M. Heydemann, “Determination and correction of quadrature fringe measurement errors in interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3382–3384 ( 1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. EMRP T3.J1.4.NANOTRACE “New traceability routes for nanometrology,” www.emrpoline.eu.
  9. B. C. Park, T. B. Eom, and M. S. Chung, “Polarization properties of cube-corner retroreflectors and their effects on signal strength and nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 35(22), 4372–4380 ( 1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Pisani, “Multiple reflection Michelson interferometer with picometer resolution,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21558–21563, ( 2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, “Semiconductor fabrication - Pushing deep ultraviolet lithography to its limits,” Nat. Photonics 1, 629–631 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. B. Eom, J. Y. Kim, and K. Jeong, “The dynamic compensation of nonlinearity in a homodyne laser interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1734–1738 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

T. Ito and S. Okazaki, “Pushing the limits of lithography,” Nature 406(6799), 1027–1031 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, “Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 µm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length,” Metrologia,  37, 25–33 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. C. Park, T. B. Eom, and M. S. Chung, “Polarization properties of cube-corner retroreflectors and their effects on signal strength and nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 35(22), 4372–4380 ( 1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. J. Downs and W. R. C. Rowley, “A proposed design for a polarization-insensitive optical interferometer system with subnanometric capability,” Precis. Eng. 15(4), 281–286 ( 1993).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Agostino, G D’

G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Barboto, G

G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Chung, M. S.

B. C. Park, T. B. Eom, and M. S. Chung, “Polarization properties of cube-corner retroreflectors and their effects on signal strength and nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 35(22), 4372–4380 ( 1996).
[Crossref]

Desogus, S

G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Downs, M. J.

M. J. Downs and W. R. C. Rowley, “A proposed design for a polarization-insensitive optical interferometer system with subnanometric capability,” Precis. Eng. 15(4), 281–286 ( 1993).
[Crossref]

Eom, T. B.

T. B. Eom, J. Y. Kim, and K. Jeong, “The dynamic compensation of nonlinearity in a homodyne laser interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1734–1738 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

B. C. Park, T. B. Eom, and M. S. Chung, “Polarization properties of cube-corner retroreflectors and their effects on signal strength and nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 35(22), 4372–4380 ( 1996).
[Crossref]

Germak, A

G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Göhnermeier, A.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, “Semiconductor fabrication - Pushing deep ultraviolet lithography to its limits,” Nat. Photonics 1, 629–631 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Haitjema, H.

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, “Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 µm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length,” Metrologia,  37, 25–33 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

Heydemann, P. L. M.

Ito, T.

T. Ito and S. Okazaki, “Pushing the limits of lithography,” Nature 406(6799), 1027–1031 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.

T. B. Eom, J. Y. Kim, and K. Jeong, “The dynamic compensation of nonlinearity in a homodyne laser interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1734–1738 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, W.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, “Semiconductor fabrication - Pushing deep ultraviolet lithography to its limits,” Nat. Photonics 1, 629–631 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

T. B. Eom, J. Y. Kim, and K. Jeong, “The dynamic compensation of nonlinearity in a homodyne laser interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1734–1738 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Okazaki, S.

T. Ito and S. Okazaki, “Pushing the limits of lithography,” Nature 406(6799), 1027–1031 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

Origlia, C

G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Park, B. C.

B. C. Park, T. B. Eom, and M. S. Chung, “Polarization properties of cube-corner retroreflectors and their effects on signal strength and nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 35(22), 4372–4380 ( 1996).
[Crossref]

Pisani, M.

M. Pisani, “Multiple reflection Michelson interferometer with picometer resolution,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21558–21563, ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Rowley, W. R. C.

M. J. Downs and W. R. C. Rowley, “A proposed design for a polarization-insensitive optical interferometer system with subnanometric capability,” Precis. Eng. 15(4), 281–286 ( 1993).
[Crossref]

Schellekens, P. H. J.

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, “Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 µm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length,” Metrologia,  37, 25–33 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

Totzeck, M.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, “Semiconductor fabrication - Pushing deep ultraviolet lithography to its limits,” Nat. Photonics 1, 629–631 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Ulrich, W.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, “Semiconductor fabrication - Pushing deep ultraviolet lithography to its limits,” Nat. Photonics 1, 629–631 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Wetzels, S. F. C. L

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, “Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 µm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length,” Metrologia,  37, 25–33 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

P. L. M. Heydemann, “Determination and correction of quadrature fringe measurement errors in interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3382–3384 ( 1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Park, T. B. Eom, and M. S. Chung, “Polarization properties of cube-corner retroreflectors and their effects on signal strength and nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 35(22), 4372–4380 ( 1996).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. B. Eom, J. Y. Kim, and K. Jeong, “The dynamic compensation of nonlinearity in a homodyne laser interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1734–1738 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (2)

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, “Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 µm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length,” Metrologia,  37, 25–33 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

G D’ Agostino, A Germak, S Desogus, C Origlia, and G Barboto, “A method to estimate the time-position coordinates of a free-falling test mass in absolute gravimetry,” Metrologia,  42, 233–238 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, “Semiconductor fabrication - Pushing deep ultraviolet lithography to its limits,” Nat. Photonics 1, 629–631 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Ito and S. Okazaki, “Pushing the limits of lithography,” Nature 406(6799), 1027–1031 ( 2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

M. Pisani, “Multiple reflection Michelson interferometer with picometer resolution,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21558–21563, ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Precis. Eng. (1)

M. J. Downs and W. R. C. Rowley, “A proposed design for a polarization-insensitive optical interferometer system with subnanometric capability,” Precis. Eng. 15(4), 281–286 ( 1993).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

EMRP T3.J1.4.NANOTRACE “New traceability routes for nanometrology,” www.emrpoline.eu.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simple diagram of multiple pass interferometer

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Arrangement of corner cubes and beam path in the two-dimensional CCA configuration (a) before the incident beam reflects at M0 [path order : a→b→c→d→e→f→g→h→i→j→k→l→m→n] (b) after the incident beam reflects at M0 [path order : n′→m′→l′→k′→j′→i′→h′→g′→f′→e′→d′→c′→b′→a′]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Path length variation due to the rotation of moving CCA block

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Path length variation due to the yaw and pitch motion of stage

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simple diagram of experiment setup (HWP: Half Wave Plate, PBS: Polarization Beam Splitter, QWP: Quarter Wave Plate, NPBS: Non-Polarization Beam Splitter, Pol: Polarizer, PD: Photo Diode).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Periodic signal according to the displacement of fine motion stage

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