Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate that hybridized nanocavities in optically thick metal films radiate in coherence, and act as an efficient single-polarized plasmonic nano-antenna array. We employ propagating and localized plasmons to enhance polarization control along one axis, with total suppression of the perpendicular polarization component. The relationship between the near-field and far-field radiation is established through a quasi-static model connecting the individual nano-antenna behavior to the phenomenon of extraordinary light transmission. Hybridized nanocavity antennas, with length scales below the conventional diffraction limit, present opportunities for potential applications in photovoltaics, optoelectronic devices and optical sensors.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. de Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Tunable nanoscale localization of energy on plasmon particle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2004–2008 (2007).
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  8. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
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  9. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
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  10. K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), 597–624 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
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  12. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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  14. H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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  17. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
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  18. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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  19. P. Lalanne, C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, and P. Chavel, “Perturbative approach for surface plasmon effects on flat interfaces periodically corrugated by subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. U. Schröter and D. Heitmann, “Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4992–4999 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Propagating plasmonic mode in nanoscale apertures and its implications for extraordinary transmission,” J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 021790 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmission through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, and C. David, “Extraordinary optical transmission in the ultraviolet region through aluminum hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 172–174 (2007).
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  26. R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, “Increased cut-off wavelength for a subwavelength hole in a real metal,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1933–1938 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, “Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 17–22 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, and T. Scharf, “Design of an Artificial Three-Dimensional Composite Metamaterial with Magnetic Resonances in the Visible Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 017401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through sub-wavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, and K. Miyano, “Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4625–4627 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Propagating plasmonic mode in nanoscale apertures and its implications for extraordinary transmission,” J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 021790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, and T. Scharf, “Design of an Artificial Three-Dimensional Composite Metamaterial with Magnetic Resonances in the Visible Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 017401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, and C. David, “Extraordinary optical transmission in the ultraviolet region through aluminum hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 172–174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. de Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Tunable nanoscale localization of energy on plasmon particle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2004–2008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, “Increased cut-off wavelength for a subwavelength hole in a real metal,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1933–1938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (7)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmission through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi, “Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 423–425 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, and P. Chavel, “Perturbative approach for surface plasmon effects on flat interfaces periodically corrugated by subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, and K. Miyano, “Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4625–4627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), 597–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, “Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 17–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Schröter and D. Heitmann, “Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4992–4999 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through sub-wavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alloschery, O.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, “Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 17–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjerneld, E. J.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Börjesson, L.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

Brueck, S. R. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Propagating plasmonic mode in nanoscale apertures and its implications for extraordinary transmission,” J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 021790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

P. Lalanne, C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, and P. Chavel, “Perturbative approach for surface plasmon effects on flat interfaces periodically corrugated by subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), 597–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

de Waele, R.

R. de Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Tunable nanoscale localization of energy on plasmon particle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2004–2008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dykhne, A. M.

A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmission through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through sub-wavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekinci, Y.

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erramilli, S.

A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Esumi, K.

H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, and K. Miyano, “Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4625–4627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Etrich, C.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, and T. Scharf, “Design of an Artificial Three-Dimensional Composite Metamaterial with Magnetic Resonances in the Visible Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 017401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Propagating plasmonic mode in nanoscale apertures and its implications for extraordinary transmission,” J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 021790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), 597–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D.

S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through sub-wavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
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S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
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S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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U. Schröter and D. Heitmann, “Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4992–4999 (1999).
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A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
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P. Lalanne, C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, and P. Chavel, “Perturbative approach for surface plasmon effects on flat interfaces periodically corrugated by subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125404 (2003).
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Itzkan, I.

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S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
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H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
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S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
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W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
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H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, and K. Miyano, “Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4625–4627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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Ohashi, K.

Orbons, S. M.

S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
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C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, and T. Scharf, “Design of an Artificial Three-Dimensional Composite Metamaterial with Magnetic Resonances in the Visible Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 017401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. de Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Tunable nanoscale localization of energy on plasmon particle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2004–2008 (2007).
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J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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Roberts, A.

S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
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C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, and T. Scharf, “Design of an Artificial Three-Dimensional Composite Metamaterial with Magnetic Resonances in the Visible Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 017401 (2007).
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P. Lalanne, C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, and P. Chavel, “Perturbative approach for surface plasmon effects on flat interfaces periodically corrugated by subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125404 (2003).
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A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmission through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
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P. Lalanne, C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, and P. Chavel, “Perturbative approach for surface plasmon effects on flat interfaces periodically corrugated by subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125404 (2003).
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Scharf, T.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, and T. Scharf, “Design of an Artificial Three-Dimensional Composite Metamaterial with Magnetic Resonances in the Visible Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 017401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlockermann, C.

S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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U. Schröter and D. Heitmann, “Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4992–4999 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmission through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamaru, H.

H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, and K. Miyano, “Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4625–4627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through sub-wavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
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F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, “Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 17–22 (2002).
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G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, A. A.

A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Orbons, A. Roberts, D. N. Jamieson, M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, D. Freeman, and B. Luther-Davies, “Extraordinary optical transmission with coaxial apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yanik, X. Wang, S. Erramilli, M. K. Hong, and H. Altug, “Extraordinary midinfrared transmission of rectangular coaxial nanoaperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuwata, H. Tamaru, K. Esumi, and K. Miyano, “Resonant light scattering from metal nanoparticles: Practical analysis beyond Rayleigh approximation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4625–4627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
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J. Nanophoton. (1)

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Propagating plasmonic mode in nanoscale apertures and its implications for extraordinary transmission,” J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 021790 (2008).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), 597–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. de Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, “Tunable nanoscale localization of energy on plasmon particle arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2004–2008 (2007).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental measurements are taken in a transmission configuration with light incident from the silicon side. (b) FDTD analysis summarizes the creation, transfer and out-coupling of the plasmons. Propagation direction is indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron images of periodic RCC (a) and RC (b) arrays are shown. Randomized RC array (c) are also fabricated to probe LSPs of individual cavities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transmissivity spectra for the random (solid curves) and periodic (dashed curves) arrays of rectangular (blue) and rectangular coaxial (red) nano-cavities are shown (a). For nanorods, extinction coefficients of s-(red) and p-polarized(blue) light are shown (b). Inset shows the resonance wavelength vs rod length fitted with analytical polarizability. The absorption features observed around 8 µm for p-polarized light are due to the enhanced vibrational absorption of naturally grown Si02 film on silicon substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The polarizibility of the individual nanorod antenna is shown in the figure. SPP resonance wavelength/frequency is shown with the black dashed line which is longer/lower than the plasmonic excitation wavelength/frequency in s- and p-polarized states.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quasi-static model of EOT effect for rectangular coaxial cavities is shown for (a) SPP-mediated and (b) direct coupling of light to LSPs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Cross sectional image of the rectangular cavity is shown at the SPP resonance frequency. (b) FDTD analysis shows the enhancement of the field inside the coaxial-cavity due to the hybridization with respect to simple rectangular cavity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hybridization model for experimentally observed red-shift is shown for RCC as a result of interaction between the rectangular nano-cavity and inner core. Energy splitting results in red shifting of the rectangular coaxial aperture resonances.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Extinction efficiency for Nanorod antennas is given for changing polarization angles for incident light. Polarization dependence of the EOT signal is shown for (b) rectangular and (c) coaxial nano-cavities. Complementary behavior of the RCC (red square) and RC (blue circles) cavities and the nanorods (green triangles) are observed.

Equations (4)

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α s , p V ( L s , p + ε d ε m ε d ) + A ε d x 2 + B ε d 2 x 4 i 4 π 2 ε d 3 / 2 3 V λ 3
p R C C = α C E 0 + E c o r e = α C E 0 + α C τ c a v r o d α R E i n d
p R C C = α C E 0 + α C τ c a v r o d α R E 0
H = H c a v i t y + H r o d + V i n t = [ ε c a v i t y Δ Δ * ε r o d ]

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