Abstract

Effect of the surrounding anisotropic liquid crystal medium on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) exhibited by concentrated suspensions of gold nanospheres has been investigated experimentally and compared with the Mie scattering theory. The observed polarization-sensitive SPR and the red-shift in the SPR wavelength with increasing concentration of the gold nanospheres in the liquid crystal matrix have been explained using calculations based on the Maxwell Garnet effective medium theory. Agglomeration of the gold nanospheres that could also lead to such a red-shift has been ruled out using Atomic force microscopy study of thin nanoparticle-doped smectic films obtained on solid substrates. Our study demonstrates feasibility of obtaining tunable optical bulk metamaterials based on smectic liquid crystal - nanoparticle composites.

© 2009 OSA

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  20. J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Sens and M. S. Turner, “Inclusions in thin smectic films,” J. Phys, II France 7(12), 1855–1870 (1997).
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  23. M. S. Turner and P. Sens, “Interactions between particulate inclusions in a smectic-A liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. 55, R1275–R1278 (1997).
  24. C. D. Santangelo and R. D. Kamien, “Bogomol’nyi, Prasad, and Sommerfield Configurations in smectics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 045506 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Liao, I. I. Smalyukh, J. R. Kelly, O. D. Lavrentovich, and A. Jakli, “Electrorotation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72, 1–5 (2005).

2008

F. S. Y. Yeung, Y. L. J. Ho, Y. W. Li, and H. S. Kwok,“Liquid crystal alignment layer with controllable anchoring energies,” J. Display Tech 4(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Koenig, M.-V. Meli, J. S. Park, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Coupling of the Plasmon resonances of chemically functionlized gold nanoparticles to local order in thermotropic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 19(5), 1053–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

V. Yannopapas and A. Moroz, “Negative refractive index metamaterials from inherently non-magnetic materials for deep infrared to terahertz frequency ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(25), 3717–3734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, “Surface-enhanced plasmon plitting in a liquid crystal-coated gold nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(21), 217401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liao, I. I. Smalyukh, J. R. Kelly, O. D. Lavrentovich, and A. Jakli, “Electrorotation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72, 1–5 (2005).

2004

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, “Splitting of surface plasmon frequencies of metal particles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2920–2922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. D. Santangelo and R. D. Kamien, “Bogomol’nyi, Prasad, and Sommerfield Configurations in smectics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 045506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351(6), 387–474 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. J. Storhoff, R. Elghanian, R. C. Mucic, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “One-Pot Colorimetric Differentiation of Polynucleotides with Single Base Imperfections Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(9), 1959–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Ruhwandl and E. M. Terentjev, “Long-range forces and aggregation of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2958–2961 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Sens and M. S. Turner, “Inclusions in thin smectic films,” J. Phys, II France 7(12), 1855–1870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Turner and P. Sens, “Interactions between particulate inclusions in a smectic-A liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. 55, R1275–R1278 (1997).

1995

Y. Wang, “Voltage induced color selective absorption with surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(19), 2759–2761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1908

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, N. L.

G. M. Koenig, M.-V. Meli, J. S. Park, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Coupling of the Plasmon resonances of chemically functionlized gold nanoparticles to local order in thermotropic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 19(5), 1053–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

de Pablo, J. J.

G. M. Koenig, M.-V. Meli, J. S. Park, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Coupling of the Plasmon resonances of chemically functionlized gold nanoparticles to local order in thermotropic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 19(5), 1053–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index of refraction in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2592–2594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Do-Hoon, K.

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Elghanian, R.

J. J. Storhoff, R. Elghanian, R. C. Mucic, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “One-Pot Colorimetric Differentiation of Polynucleotides with Single Base Imperfections Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(9), 1959–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. L. J.

F. S. Y. Yeung, Y. L. J. Ho, Y. W. Li, and H. S. Kwok,“Liquid crystal alignment layer with controllable anchoring energies,” J. Display Tech 4(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jakli, A.

G. Liao, I. I. Smalyukh, J. R. Kelly, O. D. Lavrentovich, and A. Jakli, “Electrorotation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72, 1–5 (2005).

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kamien, R. D.

C. D. Santangelo and R. D. Kamien, “Bogomol’nyi, Prasad, and Sommerfield Configurations in smectics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 045506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, J. R.

G. Liao, I. I. Smalyukh, J. R. Kelly, O. D. Lavrentovich, and A. Jakli, “Electrorotation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72, 1–5 (2005).

Khoo, I. C.

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index of refraction in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2592–2594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A.V.

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Klar, T. A.

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, G. M.

G. M. Koenig, M.-V. Meli, J. S. Park, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Coupling of the Plasmon resonances of chemically functionlized gold nanoparticles to local order in thermotropic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 19(5), 1053–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, S.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, H. S.

F. S. Y. Yeung, Y. L. J. Ho, Y. W. Li, and H. S. Kwok,“Liquid crystal alignment layer with controllable anchoring energies,” J. Display Tech 4(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

G. Liao, I. I. Smalyukh, J. R. Kelly, O. D. Lavrentovich, and A. Jakli, “Electrorotation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72, 1–5 (2005).

Letsinger, R. L.

J. J. Storhoff, R. Elghanian, R. C. Mucic, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “One-Pot Colorimetric Differentiation of Polynucleotides with Single Base Imperfections Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(9), 1959–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

F. S. Y. Yeung, Y. L. J. Ho, Y. W. Li, and H. S. Kwok,“Liquid crystal alignment layer with controllable anchoring energies,” J. Display Tech 4(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Liao, G.

G. Liao, I. I. Smalyukh, J. R. Kelly, O. D. Lavrentovich, and A. Jakli, “Electrorotation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72, 1–5 (2005).

Lubensky, T. C.

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallouk, T. E.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, T. S.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meli, M.-V.

G. M. Koenig, M.-V. Meli, J. S. Park, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Coupling of the Plasmon resonances of chemically functionlized gold nanoparticles to local order in thermotropic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 19(5), 1053–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

J. J. Storhoff, R. Elghanian, R. C. Mucic, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “One-Pot Colorimetric Differentiation of Polynucleotides with Single Base Imperfections Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(9), 1959–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moroz, A.

V. Yannopapas and A. Moroz, “Negative refractive index metamaterials from inherently non-magnetic materials for deep infrared to terahertz frequency ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(25), 3717–3734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucic, R. C.

J. J. Storhoff, R. Elghanian, R. C. Mucic, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “One-Pot Colorimetric Differentiation of Polynucleotides with Single Base Imperfections Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(9), 1959–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

G. M. Koenig, M.-V. Meli, J. S. Park, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Coupling of the Plasmon resonances of chemically functionlized gold nanoparticles to local order in thermotropic liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 19(5), 1053–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, “Surface-enhanced plasmon plitting in a liquid crystal-coated gold nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(21), 217401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, “Splitting of surface plasmon frequencies of metal particles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2920–2922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, P.

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruhwandl, R. W.

R. W. Ruhwandl and E. M. Terentjev, “Long-range forces and aggregation of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2958–2961 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santangelo, C. D.

C. D. Santangelo and R. D. Kamien, “Bogomol’nyi, Prasad, and Sommerfield Configurations in smectics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 045506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens, P.

M. S. Turner and P. Sens, “Interactions between particulate inclusions in a smectic-A liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. 55, R1275–R1278 (1997).

P. Sens and M. S. Turner, “Inclusions in thin smectic films,” J. Phys, II France 7(12), 1855–1870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Smalyukh, I. I.

G. Liao, I. I. Smalyukh, J. R. Kelly, O. D. Lavrentovich, and A. Jakli, “Electrorotation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72, 1–5 (2005).

Sonnichsen, C.

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stark, H.

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351(6), 387–474 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storhoff, J. J.

J. J. Storhoff, R. Elghanian, R. C. Mucic, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “One-Pot Colorimetric Differentiation of Polynucleotides with Single Base Imperfections Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(9), 1959–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, D.

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, “Surface-enhanced plasmon plitting in a liquid crystal-coated gold nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(21), 217401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, “Splitting of surface plasmon frequencies of metal particles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2920–2922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terentjev, E. M.

R. W. Ruhwandl and E. M. Terentjev, “Long-range forces and aggregation of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2958–2961 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Turner, M. S.

P. Sens and M. S. Turner, “Inclusions in thin smectic films,” J. Phys, II France 7(12), 1855–1870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Turner and P. Sens, “Interactions between particulate inclusions in a smectic-A liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. 55, R1275–R1278 (1997).

von Plessen, G.

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

von Poschinger, H.

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, “Voltage induced color selective absorption with surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(19), 2759–2761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, B.

Weitz, D. A.

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Werner, D. H.

Yannopapas, V.

V. Yannopapas and A. Moroz, “Negative refractive index metamaterials from inherently non-magnetic materials for deep infrared to terahertz frequency ranges,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(25), 3717–3734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeung, F. S. Y.

F. S. Y. Yeung, Y. L. J. Ho, Y. W. Li, and H. S. Kwok,“Liquid crystal alignment layer with controllable anchoring energies,” J. Display Tech 4(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys.

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Wang, “Voltage induced color selective absorption with surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(19), 2759–2761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, K. Do-Hoon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A.V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

J. Müller, C. Sonnichsen, H. von Poschinger, G. von Plessen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Electrically controlled light scatterring with single metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 171–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, “Splitting of surface plasmon frequencies of metal particles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2920–2922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Focal conic texture observed in the smectic A phase of the LC-GNP dispersions viewed between crossed polarizers, (a) Φ = 0.21 and (b) Φ =0.54.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical absorption spectra obtained with GNPs suspended in ethyl alcohol before addition of the liquid crystal and LC-GNP dispersions with Φ = 0.21 and Φ = 0.54.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical spectra obtained with comparable volume fractions of GNPs (a) from experiment and (b) from calculations based on Mie scattering theory.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the smectic layers around the nanoparticles when the director orientation at the surface is (a) tangential and (b) radial.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical spectra obtained after the sample has been aligned under a magnetic field.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of resonance wavelength on particle size ranging from r=20 to 150nm from Mie scattering calculations for refractive indexes (a) n=1.5 and (b) n=1.7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AFM image of the hump like regions that correspond to layer deformations induced by the nanoparticles for a sample with Φ = 0.54.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength for different volume fraction of GNPs from effective medium calculations (dotted line drawn as guide to the eye) and from experimental absorption spectra obtained with polarizer P=0° and P=90°.

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