Abstract

Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances from mid-infrared to near-infrared wavelengths could have far-reaching consequences for chip based optical devices, active filters, modulators, and sensors. Utilizing the metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium oxide (VO2), we demonstrate frequency-tunable metamaterials in the near-IR range, from 1.5 - 5 microns. Arrays of Ag split ring resonators (SRRs) are patterned with e-beam lithography onto planar VO2 and etched via reactive ion etching to yield Ag/VO2 hybrid SRRs. FTIR reflection data and FDTD simulation results show the resonant peak position red shifts upon heating above the phase transition temperature. We also show that, by including coupling elements in the design of these hybrid Ag/VO2 bi-layer structures, we can achieve resonant peak position tuning of up to 110 nm.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of crystallographic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3(4), 490–500 (1971).
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  20. F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund., “Size-dependent optical properties of VO2 nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(17), 177403 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Confocal Raman microscopy across the metal-insulator transition of single vanadium dioxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 702–706 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 hole films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12095–12101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Confocal Raman microscopy across the metal-insulator transition of single vanadium dioxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 702–706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12095–12101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 hole films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (5)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund., “Size-dependent optical properties of VO2 nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(17), 177403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally- driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafest timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of crystallographic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3(4), 490–500 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504–509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, G. O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balatsky, A. V.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brehm, M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

Cavalleri, A.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally- driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafest timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, B. G.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. H. W.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally- driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafest timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally- driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafest timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Donev, E. U.

E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Confocal Raman microscopy across the metal-insulator transition of single vanadium dioxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 702–706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 hole films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, L. C.

E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Confocal Raman microscopy across the metal-insulator transition of single vanadium dioxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 702–706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 hole films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund., “Size-dependent optical properties of VO2 nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(17), 177403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forget, P.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Goodenough, J. B.

J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of crystallographic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3(4), 490–500 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tunig of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hybrid split-ring resonator metamaterials based on vanadium oxide. (a) Schematic of a self-aligned silver/vanadium oxide metamaterial unit cell. The 150 nm thick silver SRR is fabricated by e-beam patterning and metal lift-off. 70 X 70 μm arrays of these structures sit on 60 nm of VO2. A 10 nm chromium mask protects the silver SRR during etching. (b-d) SEM images of the three coupled-SRR metamaterial arrays studied in this work. These designs yield multiple resonances in the near-IR spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). Near-IR reflection spectra of 150 nm thick Ag metamaterial arrays on 60 nm VO2 thin films. As the temperature is increased above the insulator-metal transition temperature of VO2, the near-IR spectral reflection properties of the SRR array become similar to those of a non-patterned metal-phase VO2 film (inset). (b) Simulated reflection spectra for the same structure using FDTD. Magnetic field intensity, |Hz|2 plots at the resonant peak position, show the resonance disappear as the structures become electrically shorted by the metal-phase VO2 (inset). (c) Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to model the complex optical constants of VO2 thin films. Multi-oscillator ellipsometric models were used to extrapolate to the near and mid-IR to aid in FDTD simulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Active self-aligned hybrid-SRR arrays. (a) Near-IR reflection spectra of self-aligned 150 nm Ag / 60 nm VO2 hybrid-SRR arrays. The magnetic resonant peak shifts by 100 nm upon heating as the VO2 undergoes a phase transition. (b) FDTD simulations of the self-aligned hybrid-SRR array. Simulations show a resonant peak shift of the same magnitude as experiment. A bi-layer VO2 model (15 nm thick metal phase, 45 nm thick insulator phase) is used to predict the experimental results (Inset) Simulated field intensity profiles (|Hz|2, and |Ex|2) at λ = 2.5 μm for hybrid metamaterials show resonances both for insulating and metallic VO2 phases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Active coupled asymmetric Ag/VO2 hybrid-SRR metamaterials (a) Electric and magnetic resonances are seen in the SRR coupled to a bar. The magnetic resonance at 3.0 μm shifted by 100 nm to 3.1 μm. Simulated field plots (inset) at the resonant wavelengths show |Hz|2 (top) and |Ex|2 (bottom) of the self-aligned structures on insulating VO2. (b) Face-to-face coupled structures show an enhanced resonance at the shorter wavelength, λ1 = 2.1 μm, and decreased reflection resonance at λ2 = 3.1 μm. (c) Back-to-back coupled structures have magnetic resonant reflection peaks at λ1 = 2.3 μm and λ2 = 2.8 μm which shift by 65 nm upon VO2 switching.

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