Abstract

By focusing a high repetition rate (50kHz), compact, femtosecond laser system with low pulse energy (25μJ) using a tight-focusing geometry, we demonstrate fully phase matched high-order harmonic generation for the first time at very high repetition rates, resulting in EUV light with full spatial coherence. The result is a practical, single-box, coherent source useful for applications in metrology, ultrafast spectroscopy, imaging and microscopy. The soft x-ray flux can be improved further by increasing the laser pulse energy and/or repetition rate.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Salin, C. L. Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, “Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 718–720 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Boullet, Y. Zaouter, J. Limpert, S. Petit, Y. Mairesse, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, E. Mével, E. Constant, and E. Cormier, “High-order harmonic generation at a megahertz-level repetition rate directly driven by an ytterbium-doped-fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1489–1491 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011804 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

L. Misoguti, I. P. Christov, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Nonlinear wave-mixing processes in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lee, J. J. Park, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, “Wave-front phase measurements of high-order harmonic beams by use of point-diffraction interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 480–482 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

1999

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kalman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(4), 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly Efficient, Phase-Matched High-Harmonic Generation by a Self-Guided Laser Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Salin, C. L. Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, “Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 718–720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial Coherence Measurement of Soft X-Ray Radiation Produced by High Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(23), 4756–4759 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carré, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(1), 148–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

S. C. Rae, “Ionization-Induced Defocusing of Intense Laser-Pulses in High-Pressure Gases,” Opt. Commun. 97(1–2), 25–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

D. M. Gaudiosi, E. Gagnon, A. L. Lytle, J. L. Fiore, E. A. Gibson, S. Kane, J. Squier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Jimenez, and S. Backus, “Multi-kilohertz repetition rate Ti:sapphire amplifier based on down-chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9277–9283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Misoguti, I. P. Christov, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Nonlinear wave-mixing processes in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahabad, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Barty, C.

Blanc, C. L.

Boullet, J.

Brabec, T.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kalman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(4), 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

Chang, Z.

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kalman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(4), 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Misoguti, I. P. Christov, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Nonlinear wave-mixing processes in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

J. Boullet, Y. Zaouter, J. Limpert, S. Petit, Y. Mairesse, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, E. Mével, E. Constant, and E. Cormier, “High-order harmonic generation at a megahertz-level repetition rate directly driven by an ytterbium-doped-fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1489–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cormier, E.

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial Coherence Measurement of Soft X-Ray Radiation Produced by High Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(23), 4756–4759 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, B.

Fiore, J. L.

Gagnon, E.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gaudiosi, E. Gagnon, A. L. Lytle, J. L. Fiore, E. A. Gibson, S. Kane, J. Squier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Jimenez, and S. Backus, “Multi-kilohertz repetition rate Ti:sapphire amplifier based on down-chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9277–9283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garzella, D.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaudiosi, D. M.

Gerrity, M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, E. A.

Grasbon, F.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Gumbrell, E. T.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial Coherence Measurement of Soft X-Ray Radiation Produced by High Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(23), 4756–4759 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hambach, D.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

Hartmann, R.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

Hentschel, M.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kalman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(4), 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higuet, J.

Ho, P.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial Coherence Measurement of Soft X-Ray Radiation Produced by High Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(23), 4756–4759 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K. L.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly Efficient, Phase-Matched High-Harmonic Generation by a Self-Guided Laser Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jimenez, R.

Kalman, P.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kalman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(4), 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, S.

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gaudiosi, E. Gagnon, A. L. Lytle, J. L. Fiore, E. A. Gibson, S. Kane, J. Squier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Jimenez, and S. Backus, “Multi-kilohertz repetition rate Ti:sapphire amplifier based on down-chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9277–9283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Misoguti, I. P. Christov, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Nonlinear wave-mixing processes in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kalman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(4), 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carré, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(1), 148–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La-O-Vorakiat, C.

Le Blanc, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. G.

Lewenstein, M.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libertun, A. R.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

Limpert, J.

Lindner, F.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. W.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lock, R.

W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lytle, A. L.

Mairesse, Y.

Mevel, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carré, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(1), 148–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

Meyerhofer, D. D.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial Coherence Measurement of Soft X-Ray Radiation Produced by High Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(23), 4756–4759 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly Efficient, Phase-Matched High-Harmonic Generation by a Self-Guided Laser Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misoguti, L.

L. Misoguti, I. P. Christov, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Nonlinear wave-mixing processes in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gaudiosi, E. Gagnon, A. L. Lytle, J. L. Fiore, E. A. Gibson, S. Kane, J. Squier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Jimenez, and S. Backus, “Multi-kilohertz repetition rate Ti:sapphire amplifier based on down-chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9277–9283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Misoguti, I. P. Christov, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Nonlinear wave-mixing processes in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly Efficient, Phase-Matched High-Harmonic Generation by a Self-Guided Laser Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly Efficient, Phase-Matched High-Harmonic Generation by a Self-Guided Laser Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. J.

Patchkovskii, S.

W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, A.

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, T. Popmintchev, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Design of fully spatially coherent extreme-ultraviolet light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3903–3905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rae, S. C.

S. C. Rae, “Ionization-Induced Defocusing of Intense Laser-Pulses in High-Pressure Gases,” Opt. Commun. 97(1–2), 25–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raines, K. S.

Ranitovic, P.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymondson, D. A.

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salieres, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Salin, C. L. Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, “Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 718–720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, R. L.

Sandhu, A. S.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santra, R.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatzel, M. G.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W. F.

Schmahl, G.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

Schnurer, M.

M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

Schnürer, M.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kalman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(4), 722–725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidorenko, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. A.

T. Ditmire, E. T. Gumbrell, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, D. D. Meyerhofer, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Spatial Coherence Measurement of Soft X-Ray Radiation Produced by High Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(23), 4756–4759 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

Starczewski, T.

Stolow, A.

W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
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F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
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W. Li, X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
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M. Schnurer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, F. Krausz, T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, G. Schmahl, M. Drescher, Y. Lim, and U. Heinzmann, “Few-cycle-driven XUV laser harmonics: generation and focusing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S227–S232 (2000).

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Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly Efficient, Phase-Matched High-Harmonic Generation by a Self-Guided Laser Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253901 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for HHG at high repetition rates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spatial profile of the harmonic beam 50 cm from the gas cell. (The spot on the lower right is due to debris on the surface of CCD camera) (b) Interferogram of the EUV beam diffracted by 50 μm pinholes placed 150 μm apart, using a 300s acquisition time, together with the lineout of the image. The excellent fringe contrast at the center indicates full spatial coherence. The imperfect visibility of the central fringe is due to the ~5 mrad divergence of the wavefront and the spectrum consisting of 4 harmonic orders (c) Simulations assuming the central wavelength of the measured spectrum, and 100% spatial coherence with a beam divergence of 5 mrad indicate the expected fringe visibility is 87% in agreement with our experiemental value of 85%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)Experimental conversion efficiency for the 29th (45 eV) harmonic as a function of the focus position, 200 torr Ar. (b)HHG spectrum through two 200 nm Al filters as a function of pressure (b-top) The transmission curve for 400 nm of thickness in Al, and 400 μm of thickness of Ar at 50 torr. (c) Lineouts showing that the pressure dependence of the HHG signal at the 27th (29th, 35th) order saturates at 190 (190, 150) torr likely due to free electron induced defocusing. The 27th and 29th harmonic grow quadratically at low pressure, as expected for the phase matched case, while the 35th is 100 times weaker and grows linearly since it is not phase matched. The y-axis (intensity) on this graph is separately normalized for each harmonic order.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HHG spectrum using an Ar backing pressure of 50 torr (thick black line), and 250 torr (thin blue line). Green dashed line shows the theoretical “phase matching cutoff”, where the pressure-tuned phase matching cannot achieved above 50 eV. The selective enhancement of harmonic order at 27th and 29th with increasing pressure indicates good phase matching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The total flux of HHG signal as a function of the repetition rate.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Flux comparison for high rep. rate, high harmonic generation at 45 eV. The photon flux obtained is between 102 and 104 greater than previous work at very high repetition rate although the rep. rate is × 2 lower and the laser energy only × 3 higher. The increased HHG flux is possible due to the fully phase matched geometry in a higher density length product medium.

Equations (1)

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Δk=q{P·([1η]·2πλL·Δδη·[Natm·re·λL])2b}θ·I.

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