Abstract

Recently laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential technique for trace explosive detection. Typically LIBS is performed using nanosecond laser pulses. For this work, we have investigated the use of femtosecond laser pulses for explosive residue detection at two different fluences. Femtosecond laser pulses have previously been shown to provide several advantages for laser ablation and other LIBS applications. We have collected LIBS spectra of several bulk explosives and explosive residues at different pulse durations and energies. In contrast to previous femtosecond LIBS spectra of explosives, we have observed atomic emission peaks for the constituent elements of explosives – carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Preliminary results indicate that several advantages attributed to femtosecond pulses are not realized at higher laser fluences.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  7. Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, "Energy Dependence of Emission Intensity and Temperature in a LIBS Plasma Using Femtosecond Excitation," Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 286-291 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q7. J.-B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Time-resolved and time-integrated single-shot laser-induced plasma experiments using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 59, 1033-1039 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, "Femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of trinitrotoluene," Opt. Express 16, 5332 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Colombier, P. Combis, F. Bonneau, R. L. Harzic, and E. Audouard, "Hydrodynamic simulations of metal ablation by femtosecond laser irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q7. J.-B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Time-resolved and time-integrated single-shot laser-induced plasma experiments using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 59, 1033-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, "Energy Dependence of Emission Intensity and Temperature in a LIBS Plasma Using Femtosecond Excitation," Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 286-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q6. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenroder, "Depth profiling of multi-layer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, 616-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q4. S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amodeo, T.

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Anglos, D.

Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Argyropoulos, V.

Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, B. R.

Assion, A.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Colombier, P. Combis, F. Bonneau, R. L. Harzic, and E. Audouard, "Hydrodynamic simulations of metal ablation by femtosecond laser irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, O.

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barthélemy, O.

Baudelet, M.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bolshov, M.

Q6. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenroder, "Depth profiling of multi-layer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, 616-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bonneau, F.

J. P. Colombier, P. Combis, F. Bonneau, R. L. Harzic, and E. Audouard, "Hydrodynamic simulations of metal ablation by femtosecond laser irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bossu, M.

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, B.

Q7. J.-B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Time-resolved and time-integrated single-shot laser-induced plasma experiments using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 59, 1033-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breitling, D.

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

Q7. J.-B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Time-resolved and time-integrated single-shot laser-induced plasma experiments using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 59, 1033-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chaléard, C.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colombier, J. P.

J. P. Colombier, P. Combis, F. Bonneau, R. L. Harzic, and E. Audouard, "Hydrodynamic simulations of metal ablation by femtosecond laser irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Combis, P.

J. P. Colombier, P. Combis, F. Bonneau, R. L. Harzic, and E. Audouard, "Hydrodynamic simulations of metal ablation by femtosecond laser irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dausinger, F.

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

F. C. De LuciaJr, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues," Appl. Opt. 47, G112-G121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De LuciaJr., C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 205-216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q1. F. C. De LuciaJr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives: Initial study towards improved discrimination," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 1399-1404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demchuk, A.

Q4. S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Detalle, V.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dikmelik, Y.

Donnet, C.

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eland, K. L.

Fohl, C.

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frejafon, E.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giakoumaki, A.

Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gold, D. M.

Goode, S. R.

Gottfried, J. L.

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De LuciaJr., C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 205-216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. C. De LuciaJr, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues," Appl. Opt. 47, G112-G121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q1. F. C. De LuciaJr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives: Initial study towards improved discrimination," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 1399-1404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gurevich, E. L.

Guyon, L.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haag, L.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harzic, R. L.

J. P. Colombier, P. Combis, F. Bonneau, R. L. Harzic, and E. Audouard, "Hydrodynamic simulations of metal ablation by femtosecond laser irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heaps, D. A.

Hergenroder, R.

Q6. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenroder, "Depth profiling of multi-layer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, 616-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hergenröder, R.

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hergenroeder, R.

Jacobs, H.

Johnston, T. W.

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jovelet, J.

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kutschera, U.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, J.-L.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laloi, P.

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laville, S.

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le Drogoff, B.

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Margetic, V.

Q6. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenroder, "Depth profiling of multi-layer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, 616-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Margot, J.

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mauchien, P.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mayorov, F.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McEnnis, C.

Mejean, G.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melessanaki, K.

Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meynadier, P.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. W.

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De LuciaJr., C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 205-216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. C. De LuciaJr, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues," Appl. Opt. 47, G112-G121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q1. F. C. De LuciaJr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives: Initial study towards improved discrimination," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 1399-1404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Munson, C. A.

F. C. De LuciaJr, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues," Appl. Opt. 47, G112-G121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De LuciaJr., C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 205-216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q1. F. C. De LuciaJr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives: Initial study towards improved discrimination," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 1399-1404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niemax, K.

Q6. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenroder, "Depth profiling of multi-layer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, 616-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nouvellon, C.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pakulev, A.

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palianov, P.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P. M.

Perdrix, M.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pouli, P.

Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Preuss, S.

Q4. S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, P.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sabsabi, M.

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sallé, B.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarger, L.

Q7. J.-B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Time-resolved and time-integrated single-shot laser-induced plasma experiments using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 59, 1033-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schill, A. W.

Semerok, A.

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sirven, J.-B.

Q7. J.-B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Time-resolved and time-integrated single-shot laser-induced plasma experiments using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 59, 1033-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, S.

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, J. B.

Stelmaszczyk, K.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stockhaus, A.

Q6. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenroder, "Depth profiling of multi-layer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, 616-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stratis, D. N.

Stratis-Cullum, D. N.

Stuke, M.

Q4. S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

B. Le Drogoff, M. Chaker, J. Margot, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthélemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, and F. Vidal, "Influence of the Laser Pulse Duration on Spectrochemical Analysis of Solids by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 122-129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

von Alvensleben, F.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Kaenel, Y.

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weikert, M.

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wellegehausen, B.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Winter, M.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woeste, L.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wollenhaupt, M.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (3)

Q9. R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, F. Dausinger, S. Valette, C. Donnet, and E. Audouard, "Ablation comparison with low and high energy densities for Cu and Al with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 80, 1589-1593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q4. S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q5. K. Furusawa, K. Takahashi, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Ablation characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu metals using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. A 69, S359-S366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Discrimination of microbiological samples using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

A. Semerok, C. Chaléard, V. Detalle, J.-L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Meynadier, C. Nouvellon, B. Sallé, P. Palianov, M. Perdrix, and G. Petite, "Experimental investigations of laser ablation efficiency of pure metals with femto, pico and nanosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 138-139, 311-314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Breitling, M. Weikert, S. Sommer, C. Fohl, S. Valette, C. Donnet, E. Audouard, and F. Dausinger, "Pulse width and energy influence on laser micromachining of metals in a range of 100 fs to 5 ps," Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 322-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (3)

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De LuciaJr., C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 205-216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q6. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenroder, "Depth profiling of multi-layer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, 616-321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437-444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 84701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Le Drogoff, F. Vidal, Y. von Kaenel, M. Chaker, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, and J. Margot, "Ablation of aluminum thin films by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8247-8252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Part B (5)

Q1. F. C. De LuciaJr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, "Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives: Initial study towards improved discrimination," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 1399-1404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1771-1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q3. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, "Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 56, 987-1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q7. J.-B. Sirven, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Time-resolved and time-integrated single-shot laser-induced plasma experiments using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 59, 1033-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q8. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. P. Colombier, P. Combis, F. Bonneau, R. L. Harzic, and E. Audouard, "Hydrodynamic simulations of metal ablation by femtosecond laser irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experimental setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Femtosecond LIBS spectra of bulk explosives collected using an echelle spectrometer Note the intensity axis is different for aluminum. The laser line at 800 nm is observed in the explosive spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

LIBS spectra of RDX residue on aluminum substrate collected from a Czerny turner spectrometer using a nanosecond pulse (black) and femtosecond pulse (red) both with a 30 J/cm2 fluence. Inset shows expansion of the carbon atomic emission peak portion of the spectra.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Femtosecond LIBS spectra collected from a Czerny Tuner spectrometer of RDX residue on aluminum (red) and blank aluminum (black) with a 3.2 J/cm2 laser fluence.

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