Abstract

We study experimentally and numerically the temporal features of supercontinuum generated with a continuous-wave ytterbium-doped fiber laser. We show that the temporal output of the supercontinuum is characterized by strong and brief power fluctuations, i.e. so-called optical rogue waves. We demonstrate numerically that these rare and strong events that appear and disappear from nowhere result from solitonic collisions.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, R. Bise, D. J. Trevor, J. Alonzo, T. Stockert, J. Fleming, E. Monberg, F. Dimarcello, and J. Fini, “Coherence of supercontinua generated by ultrashort pulses compressed in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2038–2040 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martin-Lopez, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, “The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6615–6625 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “29 W High power CW supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5954–5962 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Pulse trapping by ultrashort soliton pulses in optical fibers across zero-dispersion wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 27(3), 152–154 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Travers, “Blue solitary waves from infrared continuous wave pumping of optical fibers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1502–1507 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, “Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016619 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Kudlinski, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, M. Taki, and A. Mussot, “Dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers for CW-pumped supercontinuum sources,” to be published in J. Lightwave Technol. (2009).
  13. A. Mussot and A. Kudlinski, “19.5 W CW-pumped supercontinuum source from 0.65 to 1.38 µm,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 29–30 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373(6), 675–678 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear Fiber Optics”, 4th ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Chi and S. Wen, “Raman cross talk of soliton collision in a lossless fiber,” Opt. Lett. 14(21), 1216–1218 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. H. Frosz, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, “Soliton collision and Raman gain regimes in continuous-wave pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9391–9407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Peterson, T. Soomere, J. Engelbrecht, and E. Van Groesen, “Soliton interaction as a possible model for extreme waves in shallow water,” Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 10, 503–510 (2003).
  23. M. Oikawa and H. Tsuji, “Oblique interactions of weakly nonlinear long waves in dispersive systems,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 38(12), 868–898 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

A. Mussot and A. Kudlinski, “19.5 W CW-pumped supercontinuum source from 0.65 to 1.38 µm,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 29–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373(6), 675–678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Travers, “Blue solitary waves from infrared continuous wave pumping of optical fibers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1502–1507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oikawa and H. Tsuji, “Oblique interactions of weakly nonlinear long waves in dispersive systems,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 38(12), 868–898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Frosz, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, “Soliton collision and Raman gain regimes in continuous-wave pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9391–9407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, “Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martin-Lopez, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, “The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6615–6625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Peterson, T. Soomere, J. Engelbrecht, and E. Van Groesen, “Soliton interaction as a possible model for extreme waves in shallow water,” Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 10, 503–510 (2003).

C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373(6), 675–678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alonzo, J.

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373(6), 675–678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bise, R.

Bjarklev, A.

Bolger, J.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

Coen, S.

Cumberland, B. A.

Dias, F.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcello, F.

Dudley, J. M.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, J.

P. Peterson, T. Soomere, J. Engelbrecht, and E. Van Groesen, “Soliton interaction as a possible model for extreme waves in shallow water,” Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 10, 503–510 (2003).

Fini, J.

Fleming, J.

Frosz, M. H.

Genty, G.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

González-Herráez, M.

Goto, T.

Hong, B. J.

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kharif, C.

C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

A. Mussot and A. Kudlinski, “19.5 W CW-pumped supercontinuum source from 0.65 to 1.38 µm,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 29–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafargue, C.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Martin-Lopez, S.

Monberg, E.

Mussot, A.

A. Mussot and A. Kudlinski, “19.5 W CW-pumped supercontinuum source from 0.65 to 1.38 µm,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 29–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishizawa, N.

Oikawa, M.

M. Oikawa and H. Tsuji, “Oblique interactions of weakly nonlinear long waves in dispersive systems,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 38(12), 868–898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelinovsky, E.

C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, P.

P. Peterson, T. Soomere, J. Engelbrecht, and E. Van Groesen, “Soliton interaction as a possible model for extreme waves in shallow water,” Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 10, 503–510 (2003).

Popov, S. V.

Ranka, J. K.

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, “Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soomere, T.

P. Peterson, T. Soomere, J. Engelbrecht, and E. Van Groesen, “Soliton interaction as a possible model for extreme waves in shallow water,” Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 10, 503–510 (2003).

Soto-Crespo, J.

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

Stockert, T.

Taki, M.

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373(6), 675–678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Travers, J. C.

Trevor, D. J.

Tsuji, H.

M. Oikawa and H. Tsuji, “Oblique interactions of weakly nonlinear long waves in dispersive systems,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 38(12), 868–898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Groesen, E.

P. Peterson, T. Soomere, J. Engelbrecht, and E. Van Groesen, “Soliton interaction as a possible model for extreme waves in shallow water,” Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 10, 503–510 (2003).

Vanholsbeeck, F.

Wen, S.

Windeler, R. S.

Wisk, P.

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, C. C.

Yulin, A. V.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, “Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Mussot and A. Kudlinski, “19.5 W CW-pumped supercontinuum source from 0.65 to 1.38 µm,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 29–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Mech. BFluids (1)

C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fluid Dyn. Res. (1)

M. Oikawa and H. Tsuji, “Oblique interactions of weakly nonlinear long waves in dispersive systems,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 38(12), 868–898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Process. Geophys. (1)

P. Peterson, T. Soomere, J. Engelbrecht, and E. Van Groesen, “Soliton interaction as a possible model for extreme waves in shallow water,” Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 10, 503–510 (2003).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Lett. A (2)

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373(6), 675–678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, “Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Kudlinski, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, M. Taki, and A. Mussot, “Dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers for CW-pumped supercontinuum sources,” to be published in J. Lightwave Technol. (2009).

G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear Fiber Optics”, 4th ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA (2007).

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