Abstract

An electromechanical film, EMFi, is utilized as a transducer in a photoacoustic (PA) gas sensor. The film is a sensitive acoustic transducer, it is easily formable, and it exhibits a wide frequency response regardless of its large surface area. As a demonstration of its capabilities, the EMFi-based PA detector is used to measure NO2 with pulsed excitation at 436 and 473 nm. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient is extrapolated to be 5·10−7 cm−1. Improvements for EMFi-based PA detector are discussed.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Stenberg, R. Hernberg, and J. Vattulainen, “Analysis of pollutant chemistry in combustion by in situ pulsed photoacoustic laser diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 34(36), 8400–8408 (1995), http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-34-36-8400 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, “Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375(8), 1136–1143 (2003), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1810-8 .
    [PubMed]
  3. T. Schmid, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy for process analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(5), 1071–1086 (2006), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p3762k758px0g825 .
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bohren, and M. Sigrist, “Compact optical parametric oscillator based tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser spectrometer for intracavity photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999. CLEO ’99 pp. 190 – 191 (1999). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=834067
  5. M. Nägele and M. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for tracegas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000), http://www.springerlink.com/content/f54nkqlg6ppgbxkw/ .
  6. A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic spectroscopy (Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1980) pp. 138.
  7. M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and K. Kirjavainen, “ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi) - a new multipurpose electrets material,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1-2), 95–102 (2000), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/09244247/2000/00000084/00000001/art00269 .
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and H. Välimäki, “Electromechanical modeling and properties of the electret film EMFI,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 8(4), 629–636 (2001), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=946715 .
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hillenbrand and G. M. Sessler, “High-sensitivity piezoelectric microphones based on stacked cellular polymer films (L),” Acoustical Society of America Journal 116(6), 3267–3270 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. P. Zharov, and V. S. Letokhov, Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) pp. 112.
  11. M. Paajanen, M. Wegener, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Understanding the role of the gas in the voids during corona charging of cellular electret films - a way to enhance their piezoelectricity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2482–2488 (2001), http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/34/2482 .
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. L. Ealo, F. Seco, and A. R. Jimenez, “Broadband EMFi-based transducers for ultrasonic air applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55(4), 919–929 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4494787 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Streicher, M. Kaltenbacher, R. Lerch, and H. Peremans, “Broadband EMFi Ultrasonic Transducer for Bat Research,” in 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium pp. 1629–1632 (2005). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/10674/33680/01603174.pdf?arnumber=1603174
  15. A. Streicher, R. Muller, H. Peremans, M. Katenbacher, and R. Lerch, “Ferroelectrets: ultrasonic transducer for a biomimetic sonar system,” in 2004 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1142–1145 (2004). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=1417982
  16. I. G. Calasso and M. W. Sigrist, “Selection criteria for microphones used in pulsed nonresonant gas-phase photoacoustics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(12), 4569–4578 (1999), http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=RSINAK000070000012004569000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes .
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Schäfer, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36(15), 3202–3211 (1997), http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-36-15-3202 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. L. Ealo, F. Seco, and A. R. Jimenez, “Broadband EMFi-based transducers for ultrasonic air applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55(4), 919–929 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4494787 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Schmid, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy for process analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(5), 1071–1086 (2006), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p3762k758px0g825 .
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Hillenbrand and G. M. Sessler, “High-sensitivity piezoelectric microphones based on stacked cellular polymer films (L),” Acoustical Society of America Journal 116(6), 3267–3270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, “Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375(8), 1136–1143 (2003), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1810-8 .
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Paajanen, M. Wegener, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Understanding the role of the gas in the voids during corona charging of cellular electret films - a way to enhance their piezoelectricity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2482–2488 (2001), http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/34/2482 .
[CrossRef]

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and H. Välimäki, “Electromechanical modeling and properties of the electret film EMFI,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 8(4), 629–636 (2001), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=946715 .
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Nägele and M. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for tracegas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000), http://www.springerlink.com/content/f54nkqlg6ppgbxkw/ .

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and K. Kirjavainen, “ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi) - a new multipurpose electrets material,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1-2), 95–102 (2000), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/09244247/2000/00000084/00000001/art00269 .
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

I. G. Calasso and M. W. Sigrist, “Selection criteria for microphones used in pulsed nonresonant gas-phase photoacoustics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(12), 4569–4578 (1999), http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=RSINAK000070000012004569000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes .
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Bartusch, J.

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

Beck, H. A.

H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, “Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375(8), 1136–1143 (2003), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1810-8 .
[PubMed]

Beck, U.

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

Bovtun, V.

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

Calasso, I. G.

I. G. Calasso and M. W. Sigrist, “Selection criteria for microphones used in pulsed nonresonant gas-phase photoacoustics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(12), 4569–4578 (1999), http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=RSINAK000070000012004569000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes .
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

Colin, R.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

Döring, J.

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

Ealo, J. L.

J. L. Ealo, F. Seco, and A. R. Jimenez, “Broadband EMFi-based transducers for ultrasonic air applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55(4), 919–929 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4494787 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erhard, A.

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

Gerhard-Multhaupt, R.

M. Paajanen, M. Wegener, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Understanding the role of the gas in the voids during corona charging of cellular electret films - a way to enhance their piezoelectricity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2482–2488 (2001), http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/34/2482 .
[CrossRef]

Guilmot, J. M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

Haisch, C.

H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, “Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375(8), 1136–1143 (2003), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1810-8 .
[PubMed]

Hermans, C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

Hernberg, R.

Hess, P.

Hillenbrand, J.

J. Hillenbrand and G. M. Sessler, “High-sensitivity piezoelectric microphones based on stacked cellular polymer films (L),” Acoustical Society of America Journal 116(6), 3267–3270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, A. R.

J. L. Ealo, F. Seco, and A. R. Jimenez, “Broadband EMFi-based transducers for ultrasonic air applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55(4), 919–929 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4494787 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirjavainen, K.

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and K. Kirjavainen, “ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi) - a new multipurpose electrets material,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1-2), 95–102 (2000), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/09244247/2000/00000084/00000001/art00269 .
[CrossRef]

Lekkala, J.

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and H. Välimäki, “Electromechanical modeling and properties of the electret film EMFI,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 8(4), 629–636 (2001), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=946715 .
[CrossRef]

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and K. Kirjavainen, “ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi) - a new multipurpose electrets material,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1-2), 95–102 (2000), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/09244247/2000/00000084/00000001/art00269 .
[CrossRef]

Miklós, A.

Nägele, M.

M. Nägele and M. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for tracegas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000), http://www.springerlink.com/content/f54nkqlg6ppgbxkw/ .

Niessner, R.

H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, “Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375(8), 1136–1143 (2003), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1810-8 .
[PubMed]

Paajanen, M.

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and H. Välimäki, “Electromechanical modeling and properties of the electret film EMFI,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 8(4), 629–636 (2001), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=946715 .
[CrossRef]

M. Paajanen, M. Wegener, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Understanding the role of the gas in the voids during corona charging of cellular electret films - a way to enhance their piezoelectricity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2482–2488 (2001), http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/34/2482 .
[CrossRef]

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and K. Kirjavainen, “ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi) - a new multipurpose electrets material,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1-2), 95–102 (2000), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/09244247/2000/00000084/00000001/art00269 .
[CrossRef]

Roozendael, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, S.

Schmid, T.

T. Schmid, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy for process analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(5), 1071–1086 (2006), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p3762k758px0g825 .
[CrossRef]

Seco, F.

J. L. Ealo, F. Seco, and A. R. Jimenez, “Broadband EMFi-based transducers for ultrasonic air applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55(4), 919–929 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4494787 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sessler, G. M.

J. Hillenbrand and G. M. Sessler, “High-sensitivity piezoelectric microphones based on stacked cellular polymer films (L),” Acoustical Society of America Journal 116(6), 3267–3270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M.

M. Nägele and M. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for tracegas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000), http://www.springerlink.com/content/f54nkqlg6ppgbxkw/ .

Sigrist, M. W.

I. G. Calasso and M. W. Sigrist, “Selection criteria for microphones used in pulsed nonresonant gas-phase photoacoustics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(12), 4569–4578 (1999), http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=RSINAK000070000012004569000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes .
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, J.

Välimäki, H.

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and H. Välimäki, “Electromechanical modeling and properties of the electret film EMFI,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 8(4), 629–636 (2001), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=946715 .
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

Vattulainen, J.

Wegener, M.

M. Paajanen, M. Wegener, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Understanding the role of the gas in the voids during corona charging of cellular electret films - a way to enhance their piezoelectricity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2482–2488 (2001), http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/34/2482 .
[CrossRef]

Yakymenko, Y.

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

Acoustical Society of America Journal (1)

J. Hillenbrand and G. M. Sessler, “High-sensitivity piezoelectric microphones based on stacked cellular polymer films (L),” Acoustical Society of America Journal 116(6), 3267–3270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (2)

H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, “Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375(8), 1136–1143 (2003), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1810-8 .
[PubMed]

T. Schmid, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy for process analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(5), 1071–1086 (2006), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p3762k758px0g825 .
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Nägele and M. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for tracegas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000), http://www.springerlink.com/content/f54nkqlg6ppgbxkw/ .

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ .
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. (1)

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and H. Välimäki, “Electromechanical modeling and properties of the electret film EMFI,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 8(4), 629–636 (2001), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=946715 .
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

J. L. Ealo, F. Seco, and A. R. Jimenez, “Broadband EMFi-based transducers for ultrasonic air applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55(4), 919–929 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4494787 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 .
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Paajanen, M. Wegener, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Understanding the role of the gas in the voids during corona charging of cellular electret films - a way to enhance their piezoelectricity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2482–2488 (2001), http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/34/2482 .
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. G. Calasso and M. W. Sigrist, “Selection criteria for microphones used in pulsed nonresonant gas-phase photoacoustics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(12), 4569–4578 (1999), http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=RSINAK000070000012004569000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes .
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and K. Kirjavainen, “ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi) - a new multipurpose electrets material,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1-2), 95–102 (2000), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/09244247/2000/00000084/00000001/art00269 .
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

V. P. Zharov, and V. S. Letokhov, Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) pp. 112.

A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic spectroscopy (Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1980) pp. 138.

A. Bohren, and M. Sigrist, “Compact optical parametric oscillator based tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser spectrometer for intracavity photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999. CLEO ’99 pp. 190 – 191 (1999). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=834067

A. Streicher, M. Kaltenbacher, R. Lerch, and H. Peremans, “Broadband EMFi Ultrasonic Transducer for Bat Research,” in 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium pp. 1629–1632 (2005). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/10674/33680/01603174.pdf?arnumber=1603174

A. Streicher, R. Muller, H. Peremans, M. Katenbacher, and R. Lerch, “Ferroelectrets: ultrasonic transducer for a biomimetic sonar system,” in 2004 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1142–1145 (2004). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=1417982

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoacoustic cell with EMFi transducer. An upper half of the inner surface of the iron tube is coated with a double layer EMFi. Ground (Gnd) and signal (Sig) contacts to preamplifier (Preamp) are located on the top of the cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Averaged PA signal of 5 ppm NO2, excited at 473 nm. Main figure: frequency domain, first ten radial eigenmodes labeled. Inset: PA signal in time domain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Concentration measurements of NO2 at 473 nm excitation. Circles: measured amplitudes of the 6th radial mode at 59.2 kHz, line: linear fit. Detection limit corresponding to S/Nrms = 1 is 42 ppb.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of NO2 and corresponding laser pulse energies

Metrics