Abstract

Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiodes (Si APDs) are novel photodetectors used as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), or multipixel photon counter (MPPC), because they have fast response, photon-number resolution, and a high count rate; one drawback, however, is the high dark count rate. We developed a system for cooling an MPPC to liquid nitrogen temperature and thus reduce the dark count rate. Our system achieved dark count rates of <0.2 cps. Here we present the afterpulse probability, counting capability, timing jitter, and photon-number resolution of our system at 78.5 K and 295 K.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13073–13082 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Moroder, M. Curty, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Detector decoy quantum key distribution,” arXiv:0811.0027v1 [quant-ph] (2008).
  7. M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
  9. Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 337–352 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, “Photon counting with a loop detector,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 52–54 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14539–14549 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. L. Robinson and B. D. Metscher, “Photon detection with cooled avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(19), 1493–1494 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Tsujino, M. Akiba, and M. Sasaki, “Experimental determination of the gain distribution of an avalanche phtodiode at low gain,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(1), 24–26 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. MacGregor, D. MacSween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3894–3900 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  28. J. G. Rarity, T. E. Wall, K. D. Ridley, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Single-photon counting for the 1300-1600-nm range by use of Peltier-cooled and passively quenched InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 39(36), 6746–6753 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. Tsujino, M. Akiba, and M. Sasaki, “Experimental determination of the gain distribution of an avalanche phtodiode at low gain,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(1), 24–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14539–14549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 337–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13073–13082 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, “Photon counting with a loop detector,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 52–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. G. Rarity, T. E. Wall, K. D. Ridley, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Single-photon counting for the 1300-1600-nm range by use of Peltier-cooled and passively quenched InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 39(36), 6746–6753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1987 (1)

D. L. Robinson and B. D. Metscher, “Photon detection with cooled avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(19), 1493–1494 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Achilles, D.

Akiba, M.

K. Tsujino, M. Akiba, and M. Sasaki, “Experimental determination of the gain distribution of an avalanche phtodiode at low gain,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(1), 24–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akindinov, A.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alpat, B.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosi, G.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aurite, S.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azzarello, P.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balagura, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Banaszek, K.

Barral, J.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, S. D.

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battiston, R.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, G.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boscardin, M.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Breitenmoser, M.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buono, S.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buzhan, P.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 337–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charbon, E.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chepel, V.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

Collazuol, G.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Condorelli, G.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, F.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalla Betta, G. F.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Danilov, M.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dautet, H.

Degiovanni, I. P.

S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 337–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Del Guerra, A.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.

Desforges, I.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13073–13082 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, N.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dion, B.

Dolgoshein, B.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

Fallica, G.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Filatov, L.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, J. J.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garutti, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

Golovin, V.

V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, E.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Groll, M.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guschin, E.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haino, S.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hose, J.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilyin, A.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ionica, M.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, B. C.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kantserov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaplin, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kapusta, M.

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karakash, A.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kardynal, B. E.

B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kayumov, F.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klamra, W.

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klanner, R.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klemin, S.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korbel, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lafyatis, G. P.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Legré, M.

Levi, G.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Llosa, G.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lombardo, S.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, M. I.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

Lorenz, E.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ludziejewski, T.

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

MacGregor, A. D.

MacSween, D.

Marcatili, S.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marques, R. F.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

Marzocca, C.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mazzillo, M.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, R. J.

Metscher, B. D.

D. L. Robinson and B. D. Metscher, “Photon detection with cooled avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(19), 1493–1494 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, H.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A.

S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 337–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milburn, G. J.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirzoyan, R.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizuk, R.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morgunov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moszynski, M.

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neves, F.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

Niclass, C.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Otte, A. N.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Owens, P. C. M.

Pakhlov, P.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papi, A.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petasecca, M.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piemonte, C.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pignatel, G.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pignatel, G. U.

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T. B.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pokachalov, V.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Policarpo, A. J. P. L.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

Popova, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pozza, A.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quadrani, L.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

Ridley, K. D.

Rimini, E.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. L.

D. L. Robinson and B. D. Metscher, “Photon detection with cooled avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(19), 1493–1494 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, R.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

Rusinov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanfilippo, D.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

K. Tsujino, M. Akiba, and M. Sasaki, “Experimental determination of the gain distribution of an avalanche phtodiode at low gain,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(1), 24–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saveliev, V.

V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sbarra, C.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schettini, V.

S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 337–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sciacca, E.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sefkow, F.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, C.

Sliwa, C.

Smirnov, K.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solovov, V. N.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

Szawlowski, M.

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takeoka, M.

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

Tapster, P. R.

Tarkovsky, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, M.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, I.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, C.

Tsujino, K.

K. Tsujino, M. Akiba, and M. Sasaki, “Experimental determination of the gain distribution of an avalanche phtodiode at low gain,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(1), 24–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, T. E.

Walmsley, I. A.

Webb, P. P.

Wolski, D.

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woodard, N.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13073–13082 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z. L.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

Zorzi, N.

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Robinson and B. D. Metscher, “Photon detection with cooled avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(19), 1493–1494 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

K. Tsujino, M. Akiba, and M. Sasaki, “Experimental determination of the gain distribution of an avalanche phtodiode at low gain,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(1), 24–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk Characterization in Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

M. Petasecca, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi, P. Azzarello, R. Battiston, M. Ionica, A. Papi, G. U. Pignatel, and S. Haino, “Thermal and electrical characterization of silicon photomultiplier,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1686–1690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Moszynski, T. Ludziejewski, D. Wolski, W. Klamra, M. Szawlowski, and M. Kapusta, “Subnanosecond timing with large area avalanche photodiodes and LSO scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43(3), 1298–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).

S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2), 337–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. E. Kardynał, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (7)

N. Dinu, R. Battiston, M. Boscardin, G. Collazuol, F. Corsi, G. F. Dalla Betta, A. Del Guerra, G. Llosa, M. Ionica, G. Levi, S. Marcatili, C. Marzocca, C. Piemonte, G. Pignatel, A. Pozza, L. Quadrani, C. Sbarra, and N. Zorzi, “Development of the first prototypes of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 572(1), 422–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Calice/SiPM Collaboration, “Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 563(2), 368–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, “Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Moroder, M. Curty, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Detector decoy quantum key distribution,” arXiv:0811.0027v1 [quant-ph] (2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of apparatus used to measure the MPPC characteristics. The blue parts in the diagram are at 78.5 K. The high-pass filter is not used in the measurement of the time response of the MPPC. A preamplifier is placed just behind the MPPC output in the cryostat for several measurements (not seen in the figure).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Output signals from the MPPC when no high-pass filter is used, and (b) output signals from the high-pass filter when two pulses were generated successively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dark count rate as a function of overvoltage. The statistical error in the measurements is almost within the size of symbols.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of MPPC. Junction capacitors of the single APDs are explicitly indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the method used for the direct measurement of the afterpulses at 78.5 K. The intensity of light pulses was set such that there was negligible probability of two or more photons being detected simultaneously. The time interval of the light pulses was set to 10 μs, and after this interval, the afterpulses probability were completely negligible. The pulse height distributions were determined at an overvoltage of 0.7 V.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-dimensional frequency distribution with respect to the delay time and the pulse height.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Afterpulse probability as a function of overvoltage. Open circles denote data obtained using the direct measurement method. Filled circles represent data obtained using the autocorrelation function method at an incident photon number of 30 M photons/s. The error in the measurements obtained using the direct measurement method is almost within the size of the symbols. At 295 K, the direct measurement method could not be used due to the high dark count rate. (b) Afterpulse probability as a function of the number of incident photons. The overvoltage for all the measurements was 0.7 V and 0.8 V at 78.5 K and 295 K, respectively. The open circle datum (direct measurement method) is the same as the datum corresponding to 0.7 V in panel (a). On the other hand, the filled circle data (autocorrelation function method) at 30 M photons/s and the data in panel (a) were measured individually.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photon detection efficiency as a function of overvoltage at 78.5 K and 295 K.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Timing jitters for single-photon detection at an overvoltage of 1 V

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Detection rate plotted against high-repetition-rate light pulses. The overvoltage values were 0.7 and 0.8 V at 78.5 K and 295 K, respectively. The average number of photon detections, which were determined from the data collected below 10 MHz, was 1.6 per incident light pulse. The slope value of 0.8 represents the photon detection probability per incident light pulse at repetition rates below 10 MHz.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Pulse height distributions for short light pulses at 78.5 K (a) and 295 K (b). The parameters used for determining the distribution are listed in Table 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the MPPC

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameter Values Used for Calculation of Pulse Height Distributions

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dRdt=rn0NR+1td(1R),
R=F1+Fexp(1+Ftdt)+11+FF=rn0tdN.
D(V)=Anps(n)12πσexp((VVn)22σ2)σ2=σc2+nσp2,
ps(n)=pth(n,m)+(n1)pth(n1,m)pct1+mpctps(0)=pth(0,m),

Metrics