Abstract

By optimizing glass composition and using a multistage dehydration process, a ternary 80TeO2-10ZnO-10Na2O glass is obtained that shows excellent transparency in the wavelength range from 0.38 µm up to 6.10 µm. Based on this optimized composition, we report on the fabrication of a single-mode solid-core tellurite glass fiber with large mode area of 103 µm2 and low loss of 0.24~0.7 dB/m at 1550 nm. By using the continuous-wave self-phase modulation method, the non-resonant nonlinear refractive index n 2 and the effective nonlinear parameter γ of this made tellurite glass fiber were estimated to be 3.8×10-19 m2/W and 10.6 W-1·km-1 at 1550 nm, respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (2)

2007 (2)

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Cu2+-doped germano-silicate fiber with high resonant nonlinearity," Opt. Express 15, 3665 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3665
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

N. Syam Prasad, J. Wang, R. K. Pattnaik, H. Jain, and J. Toulouse, "Preform fabrication and drawing of KNbO3 modified tellurite glass fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, R. Kobayashi, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Nakajima, T. Omae, and M. Ohashi, "Conditions for measuring nonlinear refractive index n2 of various single-mode fibers using cw-SPM method," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1986 (1)

Y. Ohishi, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Takahashi, "Transmission loss characteristics of fluoride glass single-mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 22, 1034 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. C. Tran, C. F. Fisher, and G. H. Sigel, "Fluoride glass preforms prepared by a rotational casting process," Electron. Lett. 18, 657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alencar, M. A. R. C.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, R. Kobayashi, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boskovic, A.

Camerlingo, A.

Cardinal, T.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S. V.

Chung, Y.

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Pb2+/Al3+ codoped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Cu2+-doped germano-silicate fiber with high resonant nonlinearity," Opt. Express 15, 3665 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3665
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couzi, M.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, S.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Fisher, C. F.

D. C. Tran, C. F. Fisher, and G. H. Sigel, "Fluoride glass preforms prepared by a rotational casting process," Electron. Lett. 18, 657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, J. C.

Frampton, K. E.

Furniss, D.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Han, W. -T.

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Pb2+/Al3+ codoped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Cu2+-doped germano-silicate fiber with high resonant nonlinearity," Opt. Express 15, 3665 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3665
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hickmann, J. M.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, R. Kobayashi, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Jain, H.

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Syam Prasad, J. Wang, R. K. Pattnaik, H. Jain, and J. Toulouse, "Preform fabrication and drawing of KNbO3 modified tellurite glass fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L. R. P.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, R. Kobayashi, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, K.

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kobayashi, R.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, R. Kobayashi, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levring, O. A.

Lin, A.

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Pb2+/Al3+ codoped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Cu2+-doped germano-silicate fiber with high resonant nonlinearity," Opt. Express 15, 3665 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3665
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loh, W. H.

Machewirth, D. P.

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, T. Omae, and M. Ohashi, "Conditions for measuring nonlinear refractive index n2 of various single-mode fibers using cw-SPM method," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, M. D.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, M.

K. Nakajima, T. Omae, and M. Ohashi, "Conditions for measuring nonlinear refractive index n2 of various single-mode fibers using cw-SPM method," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Y. Ohishi, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Takahashi, "Transmission loss characteristics of fluoride glass single-mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 22, 1034 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Omae, T.

K. Nakajima, T. Omae, and M. Ohashi, "Conditions for measuring nonlinear refractive index n2 of various single-mode fibers using cw-SPM method," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pattnaik, R. K.

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Syam Prasad, J. Wang, R. K. Pattnaik, H. Jain, and J. Toulouse, "Preform fabrication and drawing of KNbO3 modified tellurite glass fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Prasad, S

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H. V.

Ramme, M.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, K.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rutt, H. N.

Sakaguchi, S.

Y. Ohishi, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Takahashi, "Transmission loss characteristics of fluoride glass single-mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 22, 1034 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

D. C. Tran, C. F. Fisher, and G. H. Sigel, "Fluoride glass preforms prepared by a rotational casting process," Electron. Lett. 18, 657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Souza, R. F.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, R. Kobayashi, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, R.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Pb2+/Al3+ codoped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Syam Prasad, N.

N. Syam Prasad, J. Wang, R. K. Pattnaik, H. Jain, and J. Toulouse, "Preform fabrication and drawing of KNbO3 modified tellurite glass fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

Y. Ohishi, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Takahashi, "Transmission loss characteristics of fluoride glass single-mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 22, 1034 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Tikhomirov, V. K.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

N. Syam Prasad, J. Wang, R. K. Pattnaik, H. Jain, and J. Toulouse, "Preform fabrication and drawing of KNbO3 modified tellurite glass fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tran, D. C.

D. C. Tran, C. F. Fisher, and G. H. Sigel, "Fluoride glass preforms prepared by a rotational casting process," Electron. Lett. 18, 657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Syam Prasad, J. Wang, R. K. Pattnaik, H. Jain, and J. Toulouse, "Preform fabrication and drawing of KNbO3 modified tellurite glass fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

Watekar, P. R.

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Pb2+/Al3+ codoped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, N. M.

Wu, F.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, R. Kobayashi, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Ohishi, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Takahashi, "Transmission loss characteristics of fluoride glass single-mode fiber," Electron. Lett. 22, 1034 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tran, C. F. Fisher, and G. H. Sigel, "Fluoride glass preforms prepared by a rotational casting process," Electron. Lett. 18, 657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

K. Nakajima, T. Omae, and M. Ohashi, "Conditions for measuring nonlinear refractive index n2 of various single-mode fibers using cw-SPM method," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 209 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Rivero, M. Ramme, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, M. Couzi, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite and fluorptellurite glasses for fiberoptic raman amplifiers: Glass characterization, optical properties, Raman gain, preliminary, fiberization, and fiber characterization," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

N. Syam Prasad, J. Wang, R. K. Pattnaik, H. Jain, and J. Toulouse, "Preform fabrication and drawing of KNbO3 modified tellurite glass fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S Prasad, K. Kiang, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, and H. Jain, "Source of optical loss in tellurite glass fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W. -T. Han, "Pb2+/Al3+ codoped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mat. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Zhang, A. Lin, J. S. Wang, and J. Toulouse, "Multistage etching methodology for surface treatment of tellurite glasses," J. Non-Crystal. Solids, (Submitted in April, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

DTA traces obtained for as-quenched glasses of different compositions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A multistage dehydration process (left) and the resulted UV-VIS+FTIR transmission spectrum (right) of TZN-80 glass (Thickness of the tested sample is 1.4 mm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface microscopy graphs of TZN-75 and TZN-80 based fibers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cross-section microscopy graphs of the TZN glass fibers with different losses at 1550 nm: (a) 0.24 dB/m loss with a regular core; (b) 0.7 dB/m loss with a distorted core and a small gap between core and clad; (c) 3 dB/m loss with a heavily distorted and diffused core; (d) 5 dB/m loss with a big gap between core and clad.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured cw-SPM spectrum and simulated fundamental mode profile at 1550 nm.

Equations (3)

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I1I0=J12(φSPM)+J22(φSPM)J02(φSPM)+J12(φSPM)
n2=λAeff4πLeff[φSPMPAVG]=λAeff4πLeffκac
γ=2πλn2Aeff=φSPMPAVG12Leff=κac2Leff

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