Abstract

Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Daneu, A. Sanchez, T. Y. Fan, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, and C. C. Cook, "Spectral beam combining of a broad-stripe diode laser array in an external cavity," Opt. Lett. 25, 405-407 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Augst, A. K. Goyal, R. L. Aggarwal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez., "Wavelength beam combining of ytterbium fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 331-333 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Chann, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez-Rubio, B. L. Volodin, and V. S. Ban, "Efficient, high-brightness wavelength-beam-combined commercial off-the-shelf diode stacks achieved by use of a wavelength-chirped volume Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 1253-1255 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantumcascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Daylight Solutions, www.daylightsolutions.com.

2009 (1)

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Chann, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez-Rubio, B. L. Volodin, and V. S. Ban, "Efficient, high-brightness wavelength-beam-combined commercial off-the-shelf diode stacks achieved by use of a wavelength-chirped volume Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 1253-1255 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Y. Fan, "Laser Beam Combining for High-Power, High-Radiance Sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 567 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantumcascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Aggarwal, R. L.

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Augst, S. J.

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ban, V. S.

Beck, M.

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantumcascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chann, B.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Chann, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez-Rubio, B. L. Volodin, and V. S. Ban, "Efficient, high-brightness wavelength-beam-combined commercial off-the-shelf diode stacks achieved by use of a wavelength-chirped volume Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 1253-1255 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. K.

Cook, C. C.

Corzine, S.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daneu, V.

Darvish, S. R.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantumcascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Federico Capasso, Q. J.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantumcascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, A. K.

Harris, C. T.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, R. K.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyakh, A.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantumcascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Missaggia, L. J.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, A.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, J.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

Sanchez-Rubio, A.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Chann, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez-Rubio, B. L. Volodin, and V. S. Ban, "Efficient, high-brightness wavelength-beam-combined commercial off-the-shelf diode stacks achieved by use of a wavelength-chirped volume Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 1253-1255 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. W.

Turner, G.W.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. L.

Wang, Q. J.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. A.

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, Federico Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, "1.6 Whigh wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 mm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantumcascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. G. Lee, M. Belkin, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and F. Capasso, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 554-565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

T. Y. Fan, "Laser Beam Combining for High-Power, High-Radiance Sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 567 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G.W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, "High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 209-211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Today (1)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Today 55, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of wavelength beam combining with an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The emission wavelengths of the lasers are selected by the individual DFBs on each laser ridge in the array. Beam combining is accomplished by a suitably placed grating and transform lens that overlap the beams from each laser in both the near-field and far-field. (b) Photograph of the actual wavelength beam combining setup with the DFB-QCL array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Image of the beam of a representative laser, just after it has been reflected from the grating. The white bar is 1 cm. (b) Image of the far-field spot of a representative laser. The white bar is 1 milliradian. (c) Linescan in the horizontal (solid) and vertical (dotted line) directions of the far-field image of a representative laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Image of several lasers showing the extent of the residual pointing error of the beams. From the left, we have laser elements #18, 24, 28, and 31 in the array. Lasers 18 and 31 have the largest relative pointing error in the entire array. The white bar is 1 milliradian. (b) A plot of the angular deviation of the laser beams, as a function of the laser frequency. Squares represent the pointing of laser beams from the entire array as measured relative to the pointing of laser 31 (rightmost point in the plot). The line is a calculation of the beam pointing using the grating equation (Eq. 1) given the wavelengths of the DFB-QCL array and a grating angle of 54.65 degrees.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption spectrum of isopropanol measured using the WBC DFB-QCL array at a distance of 6 m (squares). Fourier-transform infrared-spectrometer measurement of the same sample using a Bruker Vertex 80v FTIR instrument (solid line).

Equations (1)

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d (sinθm+sinθm)=mλn.

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