Abstract

A high-resolution magneto-optical imaging system is described. In this system magneto-optical Kerr effect is utilized for resolving individual flux quanta in a type II superconductor. Using an ultra thin EuSe indicator a spatial resolution of 0.8µm is achieved.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. V. Grigorieva, "Magnetic flux decoration of type-II superconductors," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 7, 161-177 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. R. Koblischka and R. J. Wijngaarden, "Magneto-optical investigations of superconductors," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 8,199-214 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. J. Bending, "Local magnetic probes of superconductors," Adv. Phys. 48, 449-535 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Hubener, Magnetic Flux Structures in Superconductors 2nd edition (Springer, Berlin, 2001).
  9. P. E. Goa, H. Hauglin, A. F. Olsen, M. Baziljevich, and T. H. Johansen, "Magneto-optical imaging setup for single vortex observation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 141-146 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Carneiro and E. H. Brandt, "Vortex lines in films: Fields and interactions," Phys. Rev. B 61, 6370-6376 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Laraoui, M. Albrecht, and J. Y. Bigot,"Femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 936-938 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Elazar, M. Sahaf, L. Szapiro, D. Cheskis, and S. Bar-Ad, "Single-pulse magneto-optic microscopy: a new tool for studying optically induced magnetization reversals," Opt. Lett. 33, 2734-2736 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Schoenes and P. Wachter, "Magnetooptic Spectroscopy of EuS, EuSe, and EuTe," Trans. Magnetic 12, 81-85 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Th. Schuster, M. R. Koblischka, B. Ludescher, N. Moser, and H. Kronmuller, "EuSe as magneto-optical active coating for use with the high resolution Faraday effect," Cryogenics 31, 811-816 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. R. Reisin and S. G. Lipson, "Intermediate-state structures of type-I superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 61, 4251-4258 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Abdo, E. Segev, O. Shtempluck, and E. Buks, "Nonlinear Coupling in Nb/NbN Superconducting Microwave Resonators," arXiv:cond-mat/0501236 v1, (2005).
  17. S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson and D. S. Tannhauser, Optical physics 3rd ed, (Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  18. T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P. E. Goa, Y. M. Gal pe rin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M.-S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic magnetic instability in superconducting MgB2 films," Europhys. Lett. 59, 599-606 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. Laraoui, M. Albrecht, and J. Y. Bigot,"Femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 936-938 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. E. Goa, H. Hauglin, A. F. Olsen, M. Baziljevich, and T. H. Johansen, "Magneto-optical imaging setup for single vortex observation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P. E. Goa, Y. M. Gal pe rin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M.-S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic magnetic instability in superconducting MgB2 films," Europhys. Lett. 59, 599-606 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. R. Reisin and S. G. Lipson, "Intermediate-state structures of type-I superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 61, 4251-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Carneiro and E. H. Brandt, "Vortex lines in films: Fields and interactions," Phys. Rev. B 61, 6370-6376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. J. Bending, "Local magnetic probes of superconductors," Adv. Phys. 48, 449-535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. R. Koblischka and R. J. Wijngaarden, "Magneto-optical investigations of superconductors," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 8,199-214 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

I. V. Grigorieva, "Magnetic flux decoration of type-II superconductors," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 7, 161-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Th. Schuster, M. R. Koblischka, B. Ludescher, N. Moser, and H. Kronmuller, "EuSe as magneto-optical active coating for use with the high resolution Faraday effect," Cryogenics 31, 811-816 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. Schoenes and P. Wachter, "Magnetooptic Spectroscopy of EuS, EuSe, and EuTe," Trans. Magnetic 12, 81-85 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

Bar-Ad, S.

Baziljevich, M.

P. E. Goa, H. Hauglin, A. F. Olsen, M. Baziljevich, and T. H. Johansen, "Magneto-optical imaging setup for single vortex observation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P. E. Goa, Y. M. Gal pe rin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M.-S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic magnetic instability in superconducting MgB2 films," Europhys. Lett. 59, 599-606 (2002)
[CrossRef]

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bending, S. J.

S. J. Bending, "Local magnetic probes of superconductors," Adv. Phys. 48, 449-535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J. Y.

Bonevich, J.

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, E. H.

G. Carneiro and E. H. Brandt, "Vortex lines in films: Fields and interactions," Phys. Rev. B 61, 6370-6376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carneiro, G.

G. Carneiro and E. H. Brandt, "Vortex lines in films: Fields and interactions," Phys. Rev. B 61, 6370-6376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheskis, D.

Chi, C. C.

J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. M.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Z.

Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elazar, M.

Galperin, Y. M.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goa, P. E.

P. E. Goa, H. Hauglin, A. F. Olsen, M. Baziljevich, and T. H. Johansen, "Magneto-optical imaging setup for single vortex observation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P. E. Goa, Y. M. Gal pe rin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M.-S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic magnetic instability in superconducting MgB2 films," Europhys. Lett. 59, 599-606 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Goa, P.E.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grigorieva, I. V.

I. V. Grigorieva, "Magnetic flux decoration of type-II superconductors," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 7, 161-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A.

J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hauglin, H.

P. E. Goa, H. Hauglin, A. F. Olsen, M. Baziljevich, and T. H. Johansen, "Magneto-optical imaging setup for single vortex observation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, C. W.

C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, J. E.

Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, M.

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, T. H.

P. E. Goa, H. Hauglin, A. F. Olsen, M. Baziljevich, and T. H. Johansen, "Magneto-optical imaging setup for single vortex observation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P. E. Goa, Y. M. Gal pe rin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M.-S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic magnetic instability in superconducting MgB2 films," Europhys. Lett. 59, 599-606 (2002)
[CrossRef]

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, W. N.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawabe, U.

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ketchen, M. B.

J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirtley, J. R.

J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koblischka, M. R.

M. R. Koblischka and R. J. Wijngaarden, "Magneto-optical investigations of superconductors," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 8,199-214 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Th. Schuster, M. R. Koblischka, B. Ludescher, N. Moser, and H. Kronmuller, "EuSe as magneto-optical active coating for use with the high resolution Faraday effect," Cryogenics 31, 811-816 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, S.

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kronmuller, H.

Th. Schuster, M. R. Koblischka, B. Ludescher, N. Moser, and H. Kronmuller, "EuSe as magneto-optical active coating for use with the high resolution Faraday effect," Cryogenics 31, 811-816 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laraoui, A.

Lee, S. I.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leu, J.

Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

C. R. Reisin and S. G. Lipson, "Intermediate-state structures of type-I superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 61, 4251-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lock See Yu-Jahnes, C. C.

J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luan, L.

C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ludescher, B.

Th. Schuster, M. R. Koblischka, B. Ludescher, N. Moser, and H. Kronmuller, "EuSe as magneto-optical active coating for use with the high resolution Faraday effect," Cryogenics 31, 811-816 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, T.

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moler, K. A.

C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moser, N.

Th. Schuster, M. R. Koblischka, B. Ludescher, N. Moser, and H. Kronmuller, "EuSe as magneto-optical active coating for use with the high resolution Faraday effect," Cryogenics 31, 811-816 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, A. F.

P. E. Goa, H. Hauglin, A. F. Olsen, M. Baziljevich, and T. H. Johansen, "Magneto-optical imaging setup for single vortex observation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reisin, C. R.

C. R. Reisin and S. G. Lipson, "Intermediate-state structures of type-I superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 61, 4251-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rozzi, G.

K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Rozzi, U. Kawabe, and A. Tonomuko, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature (London) 360, 51-53 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, M.

J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, J. Z. Sun, C. C. Chi, Lock See Yu-Jahnes, A. Gupta, M. Rupp, and M. B. Ketchen, "Symmetry of the order parameter in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7- ™," Nature (London) 373, 225-228 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sahaf, M.

Schoenes, J.

J. Schoenes and P. Wachter, "Magnetooptic Spectroscopy of EuS, EuSe, and EuTe," Trans. Magnetic 12, 81-85 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, Th.

Th. Schuster, M. R. Koblischka, B. Ludescher, N. Moser, and H. Kronmuller, "EuSe as magneto-optical active coating for use with the high resolution Faraday effect," Cryogenics 31, 811-816 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shantsev, D. V.

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P. E. Goa, Y. M. Gal pe rin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M.-S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic magnetic instability in superconducting MgB2 films," Europhys. Lett. 59, 599-606 (2002)
[CrossRef]

T. H. Johansen, M. Baziljevich, D. V. Shantsev, P.E. Goa, Y. M. Galperin, W. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, E. M. Choi, M. S. Kim, and S. I. Lee, "Dendritic flux patterns in MgB2 films," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, 726-729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shtrikman, H.

C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Straver, E. W. J.

Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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Z. Deng, E. Yenilmez, J. Leu, J. E. Hoffman, E. W. J. Straver, H. Dai, and K. A. Moler, "Metal-coated carbon nanotube tips for magnetic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6263-6265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeldov, E.

C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

C. W. Hicks, L. Luan, K. A. Moler, E. Zeldov, and H. Shtrikman, "Noise characteristics of 100 nm scale GaAs/AlxGa1?xAs scanning Hall probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133512 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic sketch of the experimental system: (1) Hg 100W light source, (2) Interference filters, (3) Polarizer (extinction ratio 1:10000), (4)Analyzer (extinction ratio 1:10000), (5) Non polarizing beam splitter, (6) Objective, (7)Vacuum windows, (8) Sample holder, (9) Flexible thermal connection, (10) CCD camera, (11) Cold finger, (12) Liquid Helium bath, (13) Vacuum chamber, (14) XYZ manipulator, (15) Manipulator to sample holder coupling, (16) Optical fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MO images of superconducting Nb film under external magnetic fields. The field is: (a) 0.4mT, (b) 1.2mT. The scale bar represents 5µm. Each bright spot represents a single vortex. At these low fields, the positions of individual vortices are determined by local disorder rather then by vortex-vortex interaction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity profile across a single vortex. The line is a fit to an Airy function.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Edge of a dendrite-like magnetic structure pinned in a superconductor. To produce this structure, the superconductor was first cooled through Tc in the presence of a magnetic field (-4mT) and then the field was reduced to zero. The inset shows a low resolution image of a similar structure. The scale bar in the inset represents 100µm.

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