Abstract

We present a high phase-shift efficienct Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator based on the carrier-depletion effect in a highly-doped PN diode with a small waveguide cross-sectional area. The fabricated modulator show a VπLπ of 1.8V·cm and phase shifter loss of 4.4dB/mm. A device using a 750 μm-long phase-shifter exhibits an eye opening at 12.5Gbps with an extinction ratio of 3 dB. Also, an extinction ratio of 7 dB is achieved at 4 Gbps for a device with a 2 mm-long phase shifter. Further enhancement of the extinction ratio at higher operating speed can be achieved using a travelling-wave electrode design and the optimal doping.

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  1. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elec. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Liang, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13mm SOI CMOS”, ISSCC, 13.7 (2006).
  7. G. T. Reed, and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004)

2008

2007

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elec. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elec. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J. M.

Izhaky, N.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laval, S.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyan, P.

Marris-Morini, D.

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elec. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. of Quant. Elec.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elec. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Other

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Liang, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13mm SOI CMOS”, ISSCC, 13.7 (2006).

G. T. Reed, and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional view of a PN junction waveguide phase shifter on a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI). (b) Micro-photograph of a fabricated MZM

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). Optical output intensity of a MZM having a 2mm-long phase shifter versus voltages applied to one of the arms

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(b) Output spectra of a MZM having a 1mm-long phase shifter for various voltages applied to one of the arms

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A frequency spectrum of an optical response as a function of input RF frequency for a MZM [type (I)] having a 1.5mm long phase shift arm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An eye diagram of a MZM [type(I)] with a 750μm-long phase shift arm at a bit rate of 12.5Gbps

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A measured eye diagram of the a type-(I) MZM with 2mm-long phase arm, showing a ~7 dB extinction ratio at a bit rate of 4Gbps.

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