Abstract

Spectrally-encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a technique for ultraminiature endoscopy that encodes each spatial location on the sample with a different wavelength. One limitation of previous incarnations of SEE is that it inherently creates monochromatic images, since the spectral bandwidth is expended in the spatial encoding process. Here we present a spectrally-encoded imaging system that has color imaging capability. The new imaging system utilizes three distinct red, green, and blue spectral bands that are configured to illuminate the grating at different incident angles. By careful selection of the incident angles, the three spectral bands can be made to overlap on the sample. To demonstrate the method, a bench-top system was built, comprising a 2400-lpmm grating illuminated by three 525-µm-diameter beams with three different spectral bands. Each spectral band had a bandwidth of 75 nm, producing 189 resolvable points. A resolution target, color phantoms, and excised swine small intestine were imaged to validate the system’s performance. The color SEE system showed qualitatively and quantitatively similar color imaging performance to that of a conventional digital camera.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. G. Berci and J. Rozga, “Miniature laparoscopy: quo vadis? The basic parameters of image relay and display systems,” Surg. Endosc. 13(3), 211–217 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. F. Tu and A. P. Advincula, “Miniaturizing the laparoscope: current applications of micro- and minilaparoscopy,” Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 100(1), 94–98 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Chan, S. Kumar, and N. M. Fisk, “First trimester embryo-fetoscopic and ultrasound-guided fetal blood sampling for ex vivo viral transduction of cultured human fetal mesenchymal stem cells,” Hum. Reprod. 23(11), 2427–2437 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, “A full-color scanning fiber endoscope,” in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI, (SPIE, 2006), 608303–608308.
  7. G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional spectrally encoded imaging,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2321–2323 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, J. J. Rosowsky, and G. J. Tearney, “Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14836–14844 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, “A Standard Default Color Space for the Internet: sRGB” (1996), retrieved http://www.color.org/sRGB.xalter .
  13. W. D. Wright, “A re-determination of the trichromatic coefficients of the spectral colours,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 30(4), 141–164 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Guild, “The Colorimetric Properties of the Spectrum,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 230(1), 149–187 (1932).
  15. M. D. Abramoff, P. J. Magelhaes, and S. J. Ram, “Image Processing with ImageJ,” Biophotonics International 11, 36–42 (2004).
  16. M. Mahy, L. Van Eycken, and A. Oosterlinck, “Evaluation of uniform color spaces developed after the adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 105–121 (1994).
  17. D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Volumetric sub-surface imaging using spectrally encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1748–1757 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

F. F. Tu and A. P. Advincula, “Miniaturizing the laparoscope: current applications of micro- and minilaparoscopy,” Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 100(1), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chan, S. Kumar, and N. M. Fisk, “First trimester embryo-fetoscopic and ultrasound-guided fetal blood sampling for ex vivo viral transduction of cultured human fetal mesenchymal stem cells,” Hum. Reprod. 23(11), 2427–2437 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, J. J. Rosowsky, and G. J. Tearney, “Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14836–14844 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Volumetric sub-surface imaging using spectrally encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1748–1757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. D. Abramoff, P. J. Magelhaes, and S. J. Ram, “Image Processing with ImageJ,” Biophotonics International 11, 36–42 (2004).

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Berci and J. Rozga, “Miniature laparoscopy: quo vadis? The basic parameters of image relay and display systems,” Surg. Endosc. 13(3), 211–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Mahy, L. Van Eycken, and A. Oosterlinck, “Evaluation of uniform color spaces developed after the adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 105–121 (1994).

1932 (1)

J. Guild, “The Colorimetric Properties of the Spectrum,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 230(1), 149–187 (1932).

1929 (1)

W. D. Wright, “A re-determination of the trichromatic coefficients of the spectral colours,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 30(4), 141–164 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Abramoff, M. D.

M. D. Abramoff, P. J. Magelhaes, and S. J. Ram, “Image Processing with ImageJ,” Biophotonics International 11, 36–42 (2004).

Advincula, A. P.

F. F. Tu and A. P. Advincula, “Miniaturizing the laparoscope: current applications of micro- and minilaparoscopy,” Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 100(1), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berci, G.

G. Berci and J. Rozga, “Miniature laparoscopy: quo vadis? The basic parameters of image relay and display systems,” Surg. Endosc. 13(3), 211–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Chan, J.

J. Chan, S. Kumar, and N. M. Fisk, “First trimester embryo-fetoscopic and ultrasound-guided fetal blood sampling for ex vivo viral transduction of cultured human fetal mesenchymal stem cells,” Hum. Reprod. 23(11), 2427–2437 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, T.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisk, N. M.

J. Chan, S. Kumar, and N. M. Fisk, “First trimester embryo-fetoscopic and ultrasound-guided fetal blood sampling for ex vivo viral transduction of cultured human fetal mesenchymal stem cells,” Hum. Reprod. 23(11), 2427–2437 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guild, J.

J. Guild, “The Colorimetric Properties of the Spectrum,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 230(1), 149–187 (1932).

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Jacobs, V. R.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiechle, M.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

J. Chan, S. Kumar, and N. M. Fisk, “First trimester embryo-fetoscopic and ultrasound-guided fetal blood sampling for ex vivo viral transduction of cultured human fetal mesenchymal stem cells,” Hum. Reprod. 23(11), 2427–2437 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magelhaes, P. J.

M. D. Abramoff, P. J. Magelhaes, and S. J. Ram, “Image Processing with ImageJ,” Biophotonics International 11, 36–42 (2004).

Mahy, M.

M. Mahy, L. Van Eycken, and A. Oosterlinck, “Evaluation of uniform color spaces developed after the adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 105–121 (1994).

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oosterlinck, A.

M. Mahy, L. Van Eycken, and A. Oosterlinck, “Evaluation of uniform color spaces developed after the adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 105–121 (1994).

Paepke, S.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plattner, B.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ram, S. J.

M. D. Abramoff, P. J. Magelhaes, and S. J. Ram, “Image Processing with ImageJ,” Biophotonics International 11, 36–42 (2004).

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosowsky, J. J.

Rozga, J.

G. Berci and J. Rozga, “Miniature laparoscopy: quo vadis? The basic parameters of image relay and display systems,” Surg. Endosc. 13(3), 211–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smithwick, Q. Y.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tu, F. F.

F. F. Tu and A. P. Advincula, “Miniaturizing the laparoscope: current applications of micro- and minilaparoscopy,” Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 100(1), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Eycken, L.

M. Mahy, L. Van Eycken, and A. Oosterlinck, “Evaluation of uniform color spaces developed after the adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 105–121 (1994).

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, “A re-determination of the trichromatic coefficients of the spectral colours,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 30(4), 141–164 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, D.

Yun, S. H.

Biophotonics International (1)

M. D. Abramoff, P. J. Magelhaes, and S. J. Ram, “Image Processing with ImageJ,” Biophotonics International 11, 36–42 (2004).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. Mahy, L. Van Eycken, and A. Oosterlinck, “Evaluation of uniform color spaces developed after the adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 105–121 (1994).

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Reprod. (1)

J. Chan, S. Kumar, and N. M. Fisk, “First trimester embryo-fetoscopic and ultrasound-guided fetal blood sampling for ex vivo viral transduction of cultured human fetal mesenchymal stem cells,” Hum. Reprod. 23(11), 2427–2437 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. (1)

F. F. Tu and A. P. Advincula, “Miniaturizing the laparoscope: current applications of micro- and minilaparoscopy,” Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 100(1), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. (1)

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, “Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions,” J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol. 12(4), 359–364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character (1)

J. Guild, “The Colorimetric Properties of the Spectrum,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 230(1), 149–187 (1932).

Surg. Endosc. (1)

G. Berci and J. Rozga, “Miniature laparoscopy: quo vadis? The basic parameters of image relay and display systems,” Surg. Endosc. 13(3), 211–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Opt. Soc. (1)

W. D. Wright, “A re-determination of the trichromatic coefficients of the spectral colours,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 30(4), 141–164 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, “A Standard Default Color Space for the Internet: sRGB” (1996), retrieved http://www.color.org/sRGB.xalter .

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, “A full-color scanning fiber endoscope,” in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI, (SPIE, 2006), 608303–608308.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the color SEE bench-top system. BS – beam splitter; BR – blue reflector; M – mirror; RR – red reflector; SE line – spectrally-encoded line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Color gamuts in CIE xy chromaticity diagram: (a) color gamuts of SEE at the center of FOV and sRGB; (b) effective color gamut of SEE in contour representation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of USAF 1951 resolution target for red (a), green (b), and blue (c) channels and combined RGB image (d). Scale bars represent 5 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of color checker target: (a) image generated by reference CIE L*a*b* values (illuminant D50) provided from X-Rite; (b) image by the color SEE bench-top system; and (c) image by the digital still camera. Scale bars represent 5 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of a plastic doll by the color SEE bench-top system (a) and the digital still camera (b). Scale bars represent 5 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of an excised swine small intestine tissue by the color SEE bench-top system (a) and the digital still camera (b). M – mesentery; SI – small intestine. Scale bars represent 5 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of a color SEE miniature probe.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reference CIE L*a*b* (illuminant D50; 2° observer) values of color boxes provided by manufacturer, measured L*a*b* values (mean ± std) by the color SEE bench-top system and the digital still camera; and their difference with the manufacturer reference.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p(i,C)=pw[I(i,C)/Iw(i,C)]1/2.2,
ΔE*=(L1*L2*)2+(a1*a2*)2+(b1*b2*)2.

Metrics