Abstract

We present a method that allows for a convenient switching between high harmonic generation (HHG) and accurate calibration of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer used to analyze the harmonic spectrum. The accurate calibration of HHG spectra is becoming increasingly important for the determination of electronic structures. The wavelength of the laser harmonics themselves depend on the details of the harmonic geometry and phase matching, making them unsuitable for calibration purposes. In our calibration mode, the target resides directly at the focus of the laser, thereby enhancing plasma emission and suppressing harmonic generation. In HHG mode, the source medium resides in front or after the focus, showing enhanced HHG and no plasma emission lines. We analyze the plasma emission and use it for a direct calibration of our HHG spectra.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, "Attosecond physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).

A. Ravasio et al. "Single-Shot Diffractive Imaging with a Table-Top Femtosecond Soft X-Ray Laser-Harmonics Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 028104 (2009).
[PubMed]

H. J. W¨orner and H. Niikura and J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum and D. M. Villeneuve, "Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103901 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (6)

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. G¨uhr, "High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2," Science 322, 1232-1235 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

A.-T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Extraction of the species-dependent dipole amplitude and phase from high-order harmonic spectra in rare-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023814 (2008).

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (3)

Q1. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).

M. Lein, "Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons," J. Phys. B 40, R135-R173 (2007).

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Kramida and M.-C. Buchet-Poulizac, "Energy levels and spectral lines of Ne II," Europ. Phys. J. D 39, 173-88 (2006).

2005 (2)

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. N. Coffee and G. N. Gibson, "vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2, " Phys. Rev. A 69, 53407 - 10 (2004).

2002 (1)

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, "Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules," Phys. Rev. A 66, 023,805 - 6 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. Bandrauk, and S. Chin, "Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses," Laser Phys. 11, 68-76 (2001).

1999 (1)

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2544 - 2547 (1999).

1998 (1)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation and propagation of attosecond x-ray pulses in gaseous media," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2285 - 88 (1998).

1997 (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. LHuillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces," Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204 - 10 (1997).

1996 (2)

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 - 5 (1996).
[PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Sali`eres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

Abdel-Fattah, M.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. Bandrauk, and S. Chin, "Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses," Laser Phys. 11, 68-76 (2001).

Abel, M. J.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Acquista, N.

Aguilar, A.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Altucci, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. LHuillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces," Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204 - 10 (1997).

Bandrauk, A.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. Bandrauk, and S. Chin, "Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses," Laser Phys. 11, 68-76 (2001).

Bell, M. J.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Bertrand, J. B.

H. J. W¨orner and H. Niikura and J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum and D. M. Villeneuve, "Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103901 (2009).
[PubMed]

Blagojevic, B.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Boutu, W.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Boyer, K.

Breger, P.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Buchet-Poulizac, M.-C.

A. Kramida and M.-C. Buchet-Poulizac, "Energy levels and spectral lines of Ne II," Europ. Phys. J. D 39, 173-88 (2006).

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. G¨uhr, "High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2," Science 322, 1232-1235 (2008).
[PubMed]

Burnett, J. H.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Caillat, J.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Carre, B.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Caumes, J. P.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Cavalieri, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Cha, Y. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2544 - 2547 (1999).

Chin, S.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. Bandrauk, and S. Chin, "Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses," Laser Phys. 11, 68-76 (2001).

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation and propagation of attosecond x-ray pulses in gaseous media," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2285 - 88 (1998).

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

Ciarrocca, M.

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

Coffee, R. N.

R. N. Coffee and G. N. Gibson, "vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2, " Phys. Rev. A 69, 53407 - 10 (2004).

Corkum, P. B.

H. J. W¨orner and H. Niikura and J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum and D. M. Villeneuve, "Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103901 (2009).
[PubMed]

Q1. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Fahy, K.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Farrell, J. P.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. G¨uhr, "High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2," Science 322, 1232-1235 (2008).
[PubMed]

Frasinski, L. J.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

G¨uhr, M.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. G¨uhr, "High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2," Science 322, 1232-1235 (2008).
[PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

Gibson, G.

Gibson, G. N.

R. N. Coffee and G. N. Gibson, "vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2, " Phys. Rev. A 69, 53407 - 10 (2004).

Gillaspy, J. D.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

Haessler, S.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Harada, T.

Hay, N.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, "Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules," Phys. Rev. A 66, 023,805 - 6 (2002).

Heesel, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hong, K. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2544 - 2547 (1999).

Hutchinson, M.

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, "Attosecond physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Jullien, A.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Kajumba, N.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Kapteyn, H. C.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation and propagation of attosecond x-ray pulses in gaseous media," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2285 - 88 (1998).

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 - 5 (1996).
[PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kaufman, V.

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kita, T.

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, "Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules," Phys. Rev. A 66, 023,805 - 6 (2002).

Kramida, A.

A. Kramida and M.-C. Buchet-Poulizac, "Energy levels and spectral lines of Ne II," Europ. Phys. J. D 39, 173-88 (2006).

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, "Attosecond physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

Q1. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kuroda, H.

L’Huillier, A.

P. Sali`eres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[PubMed]

Le, A. T.

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

Le, A.-T.

A.-T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Extraction of the species-dependent dipole amplitude and phase from high-order harmonic spectra in rare-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023814 (2008).

Le Bigot, E. O.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Lee, D. G.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2544 - 2547 (1999).

Lein, M.

M. Lein, "Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons," J. Phys. B 40, R135-R173 (2007).

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, "Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules," Phys. Rev. A 66, 023,805 - 6 (2002).

Leone, S. R.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Sali`eres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. D.

A.-T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Extraction of the species-dependent dipole amplitude and phase from high-order harmonic spectra in rare-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023814 (2008).

Loh, Z.-H.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Luk, T.

Makonyi, K.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Maquet, A.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Marangos, J.

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, "Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules," Phys. Rev. A 66, 023,805 - 6 (2002).

McFarland, B. K.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. G¨uhr, "High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2," Science 322, 1232-1235 (2008).
[PubMed]

McIntyre, I.

McPherson, A.

Merdji, H.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Minemoto, S.

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

Monchicourt, P.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Morishita, T.

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

A.-T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Extraction of the species-dependent dipole amplitude and phase from high-order harmonic spectra in rare-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023814 (2008).

Muffett, J.

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation and propagation of attosecond x-ray pulses in gaseous media," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2285 - 88 (1998).

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 - 5 (1996).
[PubMed]

Nagel, P. M.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Nakano, N.

Nam, C. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2544 - 2547 (1999).

Neumark, D. M.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Niikura, H.

H. J. W¨orner and H. Niikura and J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum and D. M. Villeneuve, "Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103901 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Oguchi, Y.

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

Peatross, J.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 - 5 (1996).
[PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

Pepin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Pervak, V.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Pfeifer, Th.

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Pomeroy, J. M.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Ravasio, A.

A. Ravasio et al. "Single-Shot Diffractive Imaging with a Table-Top Femtosecond Soft X-Ray Laser-Harmonics Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 028104 (2009).
[PubMed]

Reader, J.

Rhodes, C.

Roberts, J. R.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Rundquist, A.

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

Sakai, H.

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

Sali`eres, P.

P. Sali`eres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[PubMed]

Salieres, P.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. LHuillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces," Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204 - 10 (1997).

Sansone, G.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

Shin, H. J.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2544 - 2547 (1999).

Smith, R.

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

Stagira, S.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Stankiewicz, M.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Taieb, R.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Takacs, E.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. Bandrauk, and S. Chin, "Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses," Laser Phys. 11, 68-76 (2001).

Tan, J. N.

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Tisch, J.

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

Torres, R.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Umegaki, T.

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

Velotta, R.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, "Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules," Phys. Rev. A 66, 023,805 - 6 (2002).

Villeneuve, D. M.

H. J. W¨orner and H. Niikura and J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum and D. M. Villeneuve, "Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103901 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

W¨orner, H. J.

H. J. W¨orner and H. Niikura and J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum and D. M. Villeneuve, "Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103901 (2009).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

Waters, G.

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 - 5 (1996).
[PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Th. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, A. Jullien, Z.-H. Loh, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Timeresolved spectroscopy of attosecond quantum dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 11-24 (2008).

Europ. Phys. J. D (1)

A. Kramida and M.-C. Buchet-Poulizac, "Energy levels and spectral lines of Ne II," Europ. Phys. J. D 39, 173-88 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

M. Lein, "Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons," J. Phys. B 40, R135-R173 (2007).

Laser Phys. (1)

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. Bandrauk, and S. Chin, "Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses," Laser Phys. 11, 68-76 (2001).

Nature (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867 - 871 (2004).
[PubMed]

Nature Phys. (2)

Q1. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).

Q2. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules," Nature Phys. 4, 545- 549 (2008).

Phys. Rev. A (7)

S. Minemoto, T. Umegaki, Y. Oguchi,T. Morishita, A. T. Le, S. Watanabe, and H. Sakai, "Retrieving photorecombination cross sections of atoms from high-order harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. A 78, 061402 (2008).

A.-T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Extraction of the species-dependent dipole amplitude and phase from high-order harmonic spectra in rare-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023814 (2008).

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, "Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules," Phys. Rev. A 66, 023,805 - 6 (2002).

R. N. Coffee and G. N. Gibson, "vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2, " Phys. Rev. A 69, 53407 - 10 (2004).

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. LHuillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces," Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204 - 10 (1997).

J. Tisch, R. Smith, J. Muffett, M. Ciarrocca, J. Marangos, and M. Hutchinson, "Angularly resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium," Phys. Rev. A 49, R28-R31 (1994).
[PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation and propagation of attosecond x-ray pulses in gaseous media," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2285 - 88 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

P. Sali`eres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
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A. Ravasio et al. "Single-Shot Diffractive Imaging with a Table-Top Femtosecond Soft X-Ray Laser-Harmonics Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 028104 (2009).
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C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, "Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,902 - 4 (2005).

H. J. W¨orner and H. Niikura and J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum and D. M. Villeneuve, "Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103901 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 - 5 (1996).
[PubMed]

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2544 - 2547 (1999).

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743 - 46 (1996).
[PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, "Attosecond physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

B. Blagojevic, E. O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takacs, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, "A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Rev. Sci. Instr. 76, 083102 (2005).

Science (3)

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769 (2007).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics," Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. G¨uhr, "High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2," Science 322, 1232-1235 (2008).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hadrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic softx-ray beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098,103 (2007).

S. Kane, Horiba Yobin-Yvon, private communication.

G. Scoles, Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods:Volume1 (Oxford University Press, New York, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

HHG and calibration setup. The laser pulses are focused into a supersonically expanding gas jet inside a vacuum chamber using a f=200 mm lens. The VUV light consisting of plasma lines and/or harmonics in the spectral range of 20 to 70 eV are transmitted through a Al filter and dispersed by a variable line pace grating. The spectra are analyzed as a function of the gas jet position along the laser propagation direction z.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

VUV spectra as a function of gas jet position z for Xe (A) and N2 (B). The zero position corresponds to the gas jet at the laser focus. A regular pattern of lines corresponding to the odd laser harmonics is visible before and after z=0, while at z=0 the harmonics are very weak. The plasma emission lines show the opposite trend; they are strong at z=0 and get weaker in the positive or negative z direction. C) Cuts through the N2 VUV spectra around 30 nm show the spectral shift of a harmonic as a function of z.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

VUV spectra from various gases. The Ar spectrum is taken with the gas jet 0.8 mm after the focus to accentuate the high harmonics. The other spectra are taken at the laser focus (z=0) to accentuate the plasma emission. The lines used in the calibration fit are marked with arrows and numbered for each species (see also table 1). As in Ref. [28, 29], there are many unidentified plasma lines.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fit and calibration accuracy estimate. B) Wavelength versus pixel number of the calibration lines from table 1 denoted by symbols for different gases. A quartic fit (see text) is given by the grey line. To estimate the quality of the fit, we plot the difference between the fourth order fit and the reference wavelength for the particular lines as the solid squares in A). The upper and lower curve display the spectral width of a 2 pixel region (± 1 pixel). For comparison, the difference of a linear fit and the reference lines is shown as open circles.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Plasma emission lines from Fig. 3 with the attributed transition, the corresponding wavelength and the fitted center of the line.

Metrics