Abstract

We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered backprojection tomographic algorithm, we are able to incorporate a priori information about the object distribution into a fast reconstruction algorithm which is suitable for real-time monitoring.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. LaConti, M. Hamilton, and R. McDonald, Handbook of Fuel Cells – Fundamentals, Technology and Applications (Wiley 2003).
  2. D. Wilkinson and J. St-Pierre, “In-plane gradients in fuel cell structure and conditions for higher performance,” J. Power Sources 113(1), 101–108 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Knights, K. Colbow, J. St-Pierre, and D. Wilkinson, “Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC,” J. Power Sources 127(1-2), 127–134 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Pasaogullari and C. Wang, “Liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), A399–A406 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. St-Pierre, “PEMFC in situ liquid water content monitoring status,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(7), B724–B731 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Tsushima, K. Teranishi, K. Nishida, and S. Hirai, “Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(2), 255–258 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Satija, D. Jacobson, M. Arif, and S. Werner, “In situ neutron imaging technique for evaluation of water management systems in operating PEM fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 129(2), 238–245 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Patil, T. Seery, M. Shaw, and R. Parnas, “In situ water sensing in a Nafion membrane by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(16), 6141–6147 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Alanis, G. Romero, and C. Martinez, “Interferometric measurement of diffusion coefficients through a scanning laser beam,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 744–750 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kim, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Shao-Horn, “Temperature and water content measurements of Nafion membrane in PEM fuel cells by laser interferometry,” Proceedings of Electrochem. Soc., (2005).
  11. J. Kim, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Shao-Horn, “Methodology to understand the degradation mechanism of Nafion membrane in PEM fuel cells,” Electrochem. Soc. Trans. 1(8), 323–334 (2006).
  12. J. Kim, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Shao-Horn, “Water transport in Nafion membrane measured by laser interferometry,” Proceedings of Electrochem. Soc., 702(420), (2007).
  13. A. P. Leis, S. Schlicher, H. Franke, and M. Strathmann, “Optically transparent porous medium for nondestructive studies of microbial biofilm architecture and transport dynamics,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(8), 4801–4808 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Kong, Electromagnetic Wave Theory (EMW Publishing, 2000).
  15. J. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21(15), 2758–2769 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Groger, “Experimental investigation of a surface Plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 842–843 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Choi and R. Datta, “Sorption in Proton-exchange membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(12), E601–E607 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Ghiglia, and M. Pritt, Two-dimensional Phase Unwrapping – Theory, Algorithms and Software (Wiley Blackwell, 1998).
  19. J. Huntley and H. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3051 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Kak, and M. Slaney, Principals of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math., 2001).
  21. M. Bertero, Inverse Problems in Imaging (Inst. Of Physics, 2002).
  22. T. Olsen, “Stabalized inversion for limited angle tomography,” Wavelet Applications II, 781–793 (1995).
  23. A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Rangayyan, A. P. Dhawan, and R. Gordon, “Algorithms for limited-view computed tomography: an annotated bibliography and a challenge,” Appl. Opt. 24(23), 4000–4013 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Inouye, “Image reconstruction with limited angle projection data,” Trans. Nuclear Sci. 26, 2666–2671 (1979).
  26. M. Davison, “The ill-conditioned nature of the limited angle tomography problem,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 43(2), 428–448 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Payot, F. Preteux, Y. Trousset, and R. Guillemaud, “3D reconstruction from incomplete Fourier spectra: An extrapolation approach,” Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. 2823, 160–173 (1996).
  28. K. Tam and V. Perez-Mendez, “Tomographical imaging with limited-angle input,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71(5), 582–593 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Ravichandran and F. Gouldin, “Reconstruction of smooth distributions from a limited number of projections,” Appl. Opt. 27(19), 4084–4097 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Oppenheim, R. Schafer, and J. Buck, Discrete-time Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1999)
  31. S. Motupally, A. Becker, and J. Weidner, “Diffusion of water in Nafion 115 membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(9), 3171–3177 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. St-Pierre, “PEMFC in situ liquid water content monitoring status,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(7), B724–B731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. Tsushima, K. Teranishi, K. Nishida, and S. Hirai, “Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(2), 255–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Patil, T. Seery, M. Shaw, and R. Parnas, “In situ water sensing in a Nafion membrane by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(16), 6141–6147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Leis, S. Schlicher, H. Franke, and M. Strathmann, “Optically transparent porous medium for nondestructive studies of microbial biofilm architecture and transport dynamics,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(8), 4801–4808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

R. Satija, D. Jacobson, M. Arif, and S. Werner, “In situ neutron imaging technique for evaluation of water management systems in operating PEM fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 129(2), 238–245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knights, K. Colbow, J. St-Pierre, and D. Wilkinson, “Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC,” J. Power Sources 127(1-2), 127–134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Pasaogullari and C. Wang, “Liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), A399–A406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Wilkinson and J. St-Pierre, “In-plane gradients in fuel cell structure and conditions for higher performance,” J. Power Sources 113(1), 101–108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Choi and R. Datta, “Sorption in Proton-exchange membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(12), E601–E607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. Alanis, G. Romero, and C. Martinez, “Interferometric measurement of diffusion coefficients through a scanning laser beam,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 744–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Motupally, A. Becker, and J. Weidner, “Diffusion of water in Nafion 115 membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(9), 3171–3177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Payot, F. Preteux, Y. Trousset, and R. Guillemaud, “3D reconstruction from incomplete Fourier spectra: An extrapolation approach,” Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. 2823, 160–173 (1996).

M. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Groger, “Experimental investigation of a surface Plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 842–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Olsen, “Stabalized inversion for limited angle tomography,” Wavelet Applications II, 781–793 (1995).

1993 (2)

J. Huntley and H. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3051 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

M. Davison, “The ill-conditioned nature of the limited angle tomography problem,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 43(2), 428–448 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

T. Inouye, “Image reconstruction with limited angle projection data,” Trans. Nuclear Sci. 26, 2666–2671 (1979).

Abouraddy, A. F.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alanis, E.

E. Alanis, G. Romero, and C. Martinez, “Interferometric measurement of diffusion coefficients through a scanning laser beam,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 744–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arif, M.

R. Satija, D. Jacobson, M. Arif, and S. Werner, “In situ neutron imaging technique for evaluation of water management systems in operating PEM fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 129(2), 238–245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayindir, M.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

S. Motupally, A. Becker, and J. Weidner, “Diffusion of water in Nafion 115 membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(9), 3171–3177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, P.

P. Choi and R. Datta, “Sorption in Proton-exchange membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(12), E601–E607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colbow, K.

S. Knights, K. Colbow, J. St-Pierre, and D. Wilkinson, “Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC,” J. Power Sources 127(1-2), 127–134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Datta, R.

P. Choi and R. Datta, “Sorption in Proton-exchange membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(12), E601–E607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davey, J.

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davison, M.

M. Davison, “The ill-conditioned nature of the limited angle tomography problem,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 43(2), 428–448 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dhawan, A. P.

Fienup, J.

Fink, Y.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, H.

A. P. Leis, S. Schlicher, H. Franke, and M. Strathmann, “Optically transparent porous medium for nondestructive studies of microbial biofilm architecture and transport dynamics,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(8), 4801–4808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

Gottesfeld, J.

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gouldin, F.

Groger, H.

M. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Groger, “Experimental investigation of a surface Plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 842–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guillemaud, R.

E. Payot, F. Preteux, Y. Trousset, and R. Guillemaud, “3D reconstruction from incomplete Fourier spectra: An extrapolation approach,” Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. 2823, 160–173 (1996).

Hinczewski, D. S.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirai, S.

S. Tsushima, K. Teranishi, K. Nishida, and S. Hirai, “Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(2), 255–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huntley, J.

Inouye, T.

T. Inouye, “Image reconstruction with limited angle projection data,” Trans. Nuclear Sci. 26, 2666–2671 (1979).

Jacobson, D.

R. Satija, D. Jacobson, M. Arif, and S. Werner, “In situ neutron imaging technique for evaluation of water management systems in operating PEM fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 129(2), 238–245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jestel, R.

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knights, S.

S. Knights, K. Colbow, J. St-Pierre, and D. Wilkinson, “Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC,” J. Power Sources 127(1-2), 127–134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leis, A. P.

A. P. Leis, S. Schlicher, H. Franke, and M. Strathmann, “Optically transparent porous medium for nondestructive studies of microbial biofilm architecture and transport dynamics,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(8), 4801–4808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, C.

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C.

E. Alanis, G. Romero, and C. Martinez, “Interferometric measurement of diffusion coefficients through a scanning laser beam,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 744–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Motupally, S.

S. Motupally, A. Becker, and J. Weidner, “Diffusion of water in Nafion 115 membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(9), 3171–3177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, K.

S. Tsushima, K. Teranishi, K. Nishida, and S. Hirai, “Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(2), 255–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, T.

T. Olsen, “Stabalized inversion for limited angle tomography,” Wavelet Applications II, 781–793 (1995).

Parnas, R.

Y. Patil, T. Seery, M. Shaw, and R. Parnas, “In situ water sensing in a Nafion membrane by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(16), 6141–6147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pasaogullari, U.

U. Pasaogullari and C. Wang, “Liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), A399–A406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patil, Y.

Y. Patil, T. Seery, M. Shaw, and R. Parnas, “In situ water sensing in a Nafion membrane by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(16), 6141–6147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payot, E.

E. Payot, F. Preteux, Y. Trousset, and R. Guillemaud, “3D reconstruction from incomplete Fourier spectra: An extrapolation approach,” Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. 2823, 160–173 (1996).

Perez-Mendez, V.

Preteux, F.

E. Payot, F. Preteux, Y. Trousset, and R. Guillemaud, “3D reconstruction from incomplete Fourier spectra: An extrapolation approach,” Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. 2823, 160–173 (1996).

Rangayyan, R.

Ravichandran, M.

Romero, G.

E. Alanis, G. Romero, and C. Martinez, “Interferometric measurement of diffusion coefficients through a scanning laser beam,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 744–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saldner, H.

Satija, R.

R. Satija, D. Jacobson, M. Arif, and S. Werner, “In situ neutron imaging technique for evaluation of water management systems in operating PEM fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 129(2), 238–245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schlicher, S.

A. P. Leis, S. Schlicher, H. Franke, and M. Strathmann, “Optically transparent porous medium for nondestructive studies of microbial biofilm architecture and transport dynamics,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(8), 4801–4808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seery, T.

Y. Patil, T. Seery, M. Shaw, and R. Parnas, “In situ water sensing in a Nafion membrane by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(16), 6141–6147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, M.

Y. Patil, T. Seery, M. Shaw, and R. Parnas, “In situ water sensing in a Nafion membrane by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(16), 6141–6147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, F.

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springer, T.

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

M. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Groger, “Experimental investigation of a surface Plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 842–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

St-Pierre, J.

J. St-Pierre, “PEMFC in situ liquid water content monitoring status,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(7), B724–B731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Knights, K. Colbow, J. St-Pierre, and D. Wilkinson, “Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC,” J. Power Sources 127(1-2), 127–134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Wilkinson and J. St-Pierre, “In-plane gradients in fuel cell structure and conditions for higher performance,” J. Power Sources 113(1), 101–108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strathmann, M.

A. P. Leis, S. Schlicher, H. Franke, and M. Strathmann, “Optically transparent porous medium for nondestructive studies of microbial biofilm architecture and transport dynamics,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(8), 4801–4808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, K.

Teranishi, K.

S. Tsushima, K. Teranishi, K. Nishida, and S. Hirai, “Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(2), 255–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trousset, Y.

E. Payot, F. Preteux, Y. Trousset, and R. Guillemaud, “3D reconstruction from incomplete Fourier spectra: An extrapolation approach,” Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. 2823, 160–173 (1996).

Tsushima, S.

S. Tsushima, K. Teranishi, K. Nishida, and S. Hirai, “Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(2), 255–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valerio, J.

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

U. Pasaogullari and C. Wang, “Liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), A399–A406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weidner, J.

S. Motupally, A. Becker, and J. Weidner, “Diffusion of water in Nafion 115 membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(9), 3171–3177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, M.

M. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Groger, “Experimental investigation of a surface Plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 842–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Werner, S.

R. Satija, D. Jacobson, M. Arif, and S. Werner, “In situ neutron imaging technique for evaluation of water management systems in operating PEM fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 129(2), 238–245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D.

S. Knights, K. Colbow, J. St-Pierre, and D. Wilkinson, “Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC,” J. Power Sources 127(1-2), 127–134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Wilkinson and J. St-Pierre, “In-plane gradients in fuel cell structure and conditions for higher performance,” J. Power Sources 113(1), 101–108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zawodzinski, T.

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

A. P. Leis, S. Schlicher, H. Franke, and M. Strathmann, “Optically transparent porous medium for nondestructive studies of microbial biofilm architecture and transport dynamics,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(8), 4801–4808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Groger, “Experimental investigation of a surface Plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 842–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (1)

Y. Patil, T. Seery, M. Shaw, and R. Parnas, “In situ water sensing in a Nafion membrane by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(16), 6141–6147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (5)

U. Pasaogullari and C. Wang, “Liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), A399–A406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. St-Pierre, “PEMFC in situ liquid water content monitoring status,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(7), B724–B731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Choi and R. Datta, “Sorption in Proton-exchange membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(12), E601–E607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Motupally, A. Becker, and J. Weidner, “Diffusion of water in Nafion 115 membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(9), 3171–3177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Zawodzinski, T. Springer, J. Davey, R. Jestel, C. Lopez, J. Valerio, and J. Gottesfeld, “A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(7), 1981–1985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Power Sources (3)

R. Satija, D. Jacobson, M. Arif, and S. Werner, “In situ neutron imaging technique for evaluation of water management systems in operating PEM fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 129(2), 238–245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Wilkinson and J. St-Pierre, “In-plane gradients in fuel cell structure and conditions for higher performance,” J. Power Sources 113(1), 101–108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Knights, K. Colbow, J. St-Pierre, and D. Wilkinson, “Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC,” J. Power Sources 127(1-2), 127–134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

S. Tsushima, K. Teranishi, K. Nishida, and S. Hirai, “Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(2), 255–258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. F. Abouraddy, O. Shapira, M. Bayindir, J. Arnold, F. Sorin, D. S. Hinczewski, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Large-scale optical-field measurements with geometric fibre constructs,” Nat. Mater. 5(7), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. Alanis, G. Romero, and C. Martinez, “Interferometric measurement of diffusion coefficients through a scanning laser beam,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 744–750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Appl. Math. (1)

M. Davison, “The ill-conditioned nature of the limited angle tomography problem,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 43(2), 428–448 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. (1)

E. Payot, F. Preteux, Y. Trousset, and R. Guillemaud, “3D reconstruction from incomplete Fourier spectra: An extrapolation approach,” Statistical and Stochastic Methods for Image Proc. 2823, 160–173 (1996).

Trans. Nuclear Sci. (1)

T. Inouye, “Image reconstruction with limited angle projection data,” Trans. Nuclear Sci. 26, 2666–2671 (1979).

Wavelet Applications (1)

T. Olsen, “Stabalized inversion for limited angle tomography,” Wavelet Applications II, 781–793 (1995).

Other (9)

A. Kak, and M. Slaney, Principals of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math., 2001).

M. Bertero, Inverse Problems in Imaging (Inst. Of Physics, 2002).

A. Oppenheim, R. Schafer, and J. Buck, Discrete-time Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1999)

J. Kim, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Shao-Horn, “Temperature and water content measurements of Nafion membrane in PEM fuel cells by laser interferometry,” Proceedings of Electrochem. Soc., (2005).

J. Kim, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Shao-Horn, “Methodology to understand the degradation mechanism of Nafion membrane in PEM fuel cells,” Electrochem. Soc. Trans. 1(8), 323–334 (2006).

J. Kim, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Shao-Horn, “Water transport in Nafion membrane measured by laser interferometry,” Proceedings of Electrochem. Soc., 702(420), (2007).

A. LaConti, M. Hamilton, and R. McDonald, Handbook of Fuel Cells – Fundamentals, Technology and Applications (Wiley 2003).

J. Kong, Electromagnetic Wave Theory (EMW Publishing, 2000).

D. Ghiglia, and M. Pritt, Two-dimensional Phase Unwrapping – Theory, Algorithms and Software (Wiley Blackwell, 1998).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (2866 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PEM fuel cell system schematic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Double Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical model of light through the system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In-plane images. (a) Interferogram at one camera. (b) Amplitude only.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The effect of polishing membrane edges. (a) Unpolished membrane edge, (b) interferogram of unpolished membrane edge, (c) polished membrane edge, (d) interferogram of polished membrane edge.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Backpropagated solution using Gerchberg-Saxton-Fienup type iterative method in the Fresnel domain, after 50 iterations. (a) Amplitude and (b) Phase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Unwrapping intensity variations for one pixel. (a) Intensity vs time for one projection pixel, while humidifying. Circles indicate detected peaks and valleys for unwrapping, (b) Water content change vs time after phase unwrapping and conversion to water content changes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental reconstruction of water content in our test object after a) 0 s, b) 160 s, c) 320 s, d) 480 s, e) 640 s, f) 800 s. White circle indicates location of water drop (Media 1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) FEM simulation of water diffusing from flow channels into Nafion® membrane after 3 min. (b) Experimental water content projection data over time from one camera.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental water content reconstruction for a PEM fuel system. (a) Position of viewing area during experiment. 2D water content reconstructions after (b) 0 min (c) 15 min (c) 45 min (f) 95 min.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(x,t)=Ir+Io(x,t)+2IrIo(x,t)cos(2πλYΔn(x,y,t)dy)
ϕx(x,t)=2πλYnΛΔΛ(x,y,t)dy.
Λt=D2Λx2.
Λx=(ΛfΛi)x[erfc(x4Dt)],
1Δxmax=(Λxmax)(ϕΛ)(sampleπ)=6samplesμm
Λt=(Λx)(x2t)
1Δtmax=(Λtmax)(ϕΛ)(sampleπ)=352samplessec
Φ(u0,0,t)={ϕx(x,t)}K(u);
Φ(0,v0,t)={ϕy(y,t)}K(v);
Φ(0,0,t)=({ϕy(0,t)}+{ϕy(0,t)})/2;
K(u)=I0(β(C2u2)0.5)I0(β),

Metrics