Abstract

Waveguide PIN photodiodes with different absorber thicknesses and lengths were fabricated and characterized for linearity. Device A has a thicker absorber and shorter length, resulting in a bandwidth of 20GHz while device B reduces the absorber by half while maintaining the intrinsic layer thickness and almost doubles the length, resulting in a smaller optical overlap factor and a bandwidth of 10GHz. Device B shows a significant enhancement in OIP3 with a record high maximum value for a PIN waveguide photodiode of 42.4dBm at 28mA and -4V bias compared to device A which has a maximum OIP3 of 32.7dBm at 10mA and -4V bias. The increased linearity in device B is attributed to the reduction in optical overlap factor and increase in device length resulting in an easing of the front facet photocurrent density and overall device heating. The DC saturation points are about 75mA and >160mA for device A and B at -2V bias.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, "Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48,2604-2610 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen and J. C. Campbell, "Linearity of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2373-2378 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Jasmin, N. Vodjdani, J. Renaud, and A. Enard, "Diluted- and distributed-absorption microwave waveguide photodiodes for high efficiency and high power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1337-1341 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).
  8. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu "Three laser two-tone measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Express 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen and J. C. Campbell, "Linearity of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2373-2378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).

M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu "Three laser two-tone measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Express 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, "Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48,2604-2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Jasmin, N. Vodjdani, J. Renaud, and A. Enard, "Diluted- and distributed-absorption microwave waveguide photodiodes for high efficiency and high power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1337-1341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, F.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen and J. C. Campbell, "Linearity of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2373-2378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen and J. C. Campbell, "Linearity of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2373-2378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).

M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu "Three laser two-tone measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Express 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen and J. C. Campbell, "Linearity of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2373-2378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Draa, M.

M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu "Three laser two-tone measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Express 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).

Elliott, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enard, A.

S. Jasmin, N. Vodjdani, J. Renaud, and A. Enard, "Diluted- and distributed-absorption microwave waveguide photodiodes for high efficiency and high power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1337-1341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Everett, K.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, D.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jasmin, S.

S. Jasmin, N. Vodjdani, J. Renaud, and A. Enard, "Diluted- and distributed-absorption microwave waveguide photodiodes for high efficiency and high power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1337-1341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, "Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48,2604-2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, L. A.

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klamkin, J.

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krispin, A.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lembo, L.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. L.

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nunoya, N.

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen and J. C. Campbell, "Linearity of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2373-2378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, A.

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).

M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu "Three laser two-tone measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Express 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renaud, J.

S. Jasmin, N. Vodjdani, J. Renaud, and A. Enard, "Diluted- and distributed-absorption microwave waveguide photodiodes for high efficiency and high power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1337-1341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu "Three laser two-tone measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Express 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. S.

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vang, T. A.

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vodjdani, N.

S. Jasmin, N. Vodjdani, J. Renaud, and A. Enard, "Diluted- and distributed-absorption microwave waveguide photodiodes for high efficiency and high power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1337-1341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. K. L.

Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).

M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu "Three laser two-tone measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Express 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, "Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48,2604-2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. T.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Technol. (1)

Q1. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars and L. A. Coldren, "Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes with >40dBm OIP3 for up to 80mA of photocurrent," IEEE J. Quantum Technol. 44, 354-359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, "Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48,2604-2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jasmin, N. Vodjdani, J. Renaud, and A. Enard, "Diluted- and distributed-absorption microwave waveguide photodiodes for high efficiency and high power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1337-1341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen and J. C. Campbell, "Linearity of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2373-2378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

LEOS (1)

Q2. M. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang and P. K. L. Yu, "Frequency behaviors of the third order intercept point for a waveguide photodiode using a three laser two-tone setup," [Conference Paper]LEOS 2008, 284-285 (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Device design parameters

Fig 2.
Fig 2.

Material structure of the layers with bandgap wavelength in parenthesis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation of DC responsivity for device A and B.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation of heating in device A and B at -4V bias.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized frequency response of device A up to 50GHz.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized frequency response of device B up to 50GHz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

DC saturation measurement and simulation (black) for device A (blue) and B (red) at -2V bias

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

IMD3 for device A and B with -4V bias

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

OIP3 for device A and B with -4V bias at 1GHz.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

OIP3 for device A and B at 15mA and 20mA at 1GHz.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

OIP3 for device A at 10mA and B at 25mA and -4V bias

Equations (2)

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P(z)=PinW·DqhvVbΓαηexp(Γηz)(W/m3)
Ipd=Pinqhvη(1exp(ΓαL))(A)

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