Abstract

The Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL), a compact two-channel elastic lidar, was designed to obtain cloud measurements together with the Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) on the University of Wyoming King Air and the National Science Foundation/National Center of Atmospheric Research C-130 aircraft. The WCL has been deployed in four field projects under a variety of atmospheric and cloud conditions during the last two years. Throughout these campaigns, it has exhibited the needed reliability for turn-key operation from aircraft. We provide here an overview of the instrument and examples to illustrate the measurements capability of the WCL. Although the WCL as a standalone instrument can provide unique measurements for cloud and boundary layer aerosol studies, the synergy of WCL and WCR measurements coupled with in situ sampling from an aircraft provide a significant step forward in our ability to observe and understand cloud microphysical property evolution.

© 2009 OSA

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2008 (1)

J. Delanoë and R. J. Hogan, “A variatioanl scheme for retrieving ice cloud properties from combined radar, lidar, and infrared radiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D7), 7204 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

D. Leon, G. Vali, and M. Lothon, “Dual-Doppler analysis in a single plane from an airborne platform. Part I: Technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23(1), 3–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Damiani, G. Vali, and S. Haimov, “The structure of thermals in cumulus from airborne dual-Doppler radar observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 63(5), 1432–1450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Bony and J.-L. Dufresne, “Marine boundary layer clouds at the heart of tropical cloud feedback uncertainties in climate models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(20), L20806 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. M. Fritsch and R. E. Carbone, “Improving quantitative precipitation forecasts in the warm season: A USWRP research and development strategy,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85(7), 955–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, K. Sassen, D. Whiteman, and B. Demoz, “Studying altocumulus plus virga with ground-based active and passive remote sensors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43(3), 449–460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “An algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ackerman and G. Stokes, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program,” Phys. Today 56(1), 38–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, D. L. Hlavka, W. D. Hart, V. S. Scott, J. Spinhirne, and B. Schmid, “Cloud physics lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3725–3734 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud microphysical property retrieval using lidar and radar measurements: I algorithm description and comparison with in situ data,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 41(3), 218–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

D. P. Donovan and A. Van Lammeren, “Cloud effective particle size and water content profile retrievals using combined lidar and radar observations, 1. Theory and examples,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D21), 27425–27448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and K. Sassen, “Cloud type and macrophysical property retrieval using multiple remote sensors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 40(10), 1665–1683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Asrar, J. A. Kaye, and P. Morel, “NASA research strategy for earth system science: Climate component,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82(7), 1309–1330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickmann, “High-Resolution Doppler Lidar for Boundary Layer and Cloud Research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18(3), 376–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, and P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

G. Vali, R. Kelly, J. French, S. Haimov, D. Leon, R. McIntosh, and A. Pazmany, “Finescale structure and microphysics of coastal stratus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(24), 3540–3564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Mace, T. A. Ackerman, P. Minnis, and D. F. Young, “Cirrus layer microphysical properties derived from surface-based millimeter radar and infrared interferometer data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D18), 23207–23216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Eloranta, “Practical model for the calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 37(12), 2464–2472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

G. M. Heymsfield, J. M. Shepherd, S. W. Bidwell, W. C. Boncyk, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, and W. S. Olson, “Structure of Florida thunderstorms using high-altitude aircraft radiometer and radar observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35(10), 1736–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, S. W. Bidwell, P. Racette, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, S. Nicholson, W. Boncyk, L. Miller, D. Vandemark, and L. R. Dod, “The EDOP radar system on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(4), 795–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. A. Wielicki, R. D. Cess, M. D. King, D. A. Randall, and E. F. Harrison, “Mission to planet earth: role of clouds and radiation in climate,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76(11), 2125–2154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Young, “Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optically thin clouds,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7019–7031 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. Y. Matrosov, B. W. Orr, R. A. Kropfli, and J. B. Snider, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of cirrus cloud microphysical parameters from Doppler radar and infrared radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 33(5), 617–626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72(12), 1848–1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. D. Spinhirne, R. Boers, and W. D. Hart, “Cloud Top Liquid Water from Lidar Observations of Marine Stratocumulus,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28(2), 81–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

J. D. Locatelli and P. V. Hobbs, “Fall speeds and masses of solid precipitation particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79(15), 2185–2197 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T.

T. Ackerman and G. Stokes, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program,” Phys. Today 56(1), 38–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. A.

G. G. Mace, T. A. Ackerman, P. Minnis, and D. F. Young, “Cirrus layer microphysical properties derived from surface-based millimeter radar and infrared interferometer data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D18), 23207–23216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alekseev, V.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ameen, S.

G. M. Heymsfield, J. M. Shepherd, S. W. Bidwell, W. C. Boncyk, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, and W. S. Olson, “Structure of Florida thunderstorms using high-altitude aircraft radiometer and radar observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35(10), 1736–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, S. W. Bidwell, P. Racette, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, S. Nicholson, W. Boncyk, L. Miller, D. Vandemark, and L. R. Dod, “The EDOP radar system on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(4), 795–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asrar, G.

G. Asrar, J. A. Kaye, and P. Morel, “NASA research strategy for earth system science: Climate component,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82(7), 1309–1330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. T.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bandy, A.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Banta, R. M.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickmann, “High-Resolution Doppler Lidar for Boundary Layer and Cloud Research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18(3), 376–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barker, H. W.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baudin, F.

P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, A.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bidwell, S. W.

G. M. Heymsfield, S. W. Bidwell, P. Racette, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, S. Nicholson, W. Boncyk, L. Miller, D. Vandemark, and L. R. Dod, “The EDOP radar system on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(4), 795–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, J. M. Shepherd, S. W. Bidwell, W. C. Boncyk, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, and W. S. Olson, “Structure of Florida thunderstorms using high-altitude aircraft radiometer and radar observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35(10), 1736–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blomquist, B.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boain, R. J.

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S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, and P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9903–9916 (2000).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, and P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9903–9916 (2000).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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G. M. Heymsfield, J. M. Shepherd, S. W. Bidwell, W. C. Boncyk, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, and W. S. Olson, “Structure of Florida thunderstorms using high-altitude aircraft radiometer and radar observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35(10), 1736–1762 (1996).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, and P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9903–9916 (2000).
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R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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G. M. Heymsfield, S. W. Bidwell, P. Racette, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, S. Nicholson, W. Boncyk, L. Miller, D. Vandemark, and L. R. Dod, “The EDOP radar system on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(4), 795–809 (1996).
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S. Bony and J.-L. Dufresne, “Marine boundary layer clouds at the heart of tropical cloud feedback uncertainties in climate models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(20), L20806 (2005), doi:.
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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
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R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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Esch, M.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, and P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9903–9916 (2000).
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Fowler, L. D.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Fritsch, J. M.

J. M. Fritsch and R. E. Carbone, “Improving quantitative precipitation forecasts in the warm season: A USWRP research and development strategy,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85(7), 955–965 (2004).
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P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
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Galin, V.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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Gates, W. L.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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George, J. L.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickmann, “High-Resolution Doppler Lidar for Boundary Layer and Cloud Research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18(3), 376–393 (2001).
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Gerber, H.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickmann, “High-Resolution Doppler Lidar for Boundary Layer and Cloud Research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18(3), 376–393 (2001).
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Hack, J. J.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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R. Damiani, G. Vali, and S. Haimov, “The structure of thermals in cumulus from airborne dual-Doppler radar observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 63(5), 1432–1450 (2006).
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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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G. Vali, R. Kelly, J. French, S. Haimov, D. Leon, R. McIntosh, and A. Pazmany, “Finescale structure and microphysics of coastal stratus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(24), 3540–3564 (1998).
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B. A. Wielicki, R. D. Cess, M. D. King, D. A. Randall, and E. F. Harrison, “Mission to planet earth: role of clouds and radiation in climate,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76(11), 2125–2154 (1995).
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M. J. McGill, D. L. Hlavka, W. D. Hart, V. S. Scott, J. Spinhirne, and B. Schmid, “Cloud physics lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3725–3734 (2002).
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G. M. Heymsfield, S. W. Bidwell, P. Racette, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, S. Nicholson, W. Boncyk, L. Miller, D. Vandemark, and L. R. Dod, “The EDOP radar system on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(4), 795–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, J. M. Shepherd, S. W. Bidwell, W. C. Boncyk, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, and W. S. Olson, “Structure of Florida thunderstorms using high-altitude aircraft radiometer and radar observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35(10), 1736–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrand, P. H.

P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
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Hlavka, D. L.

Hobbs, P. V.

J. D. Locatelli and P. V. Hobbs, “Fall speeds and masses of solid precipitation particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79(15), 2185–2197 (1974).
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Hogan, R. J.

J. Delanoë and R. J. Hogan, “A variatioanl scheme for retrieving ice cloud properties from combined radar, lidar, and infrared radiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D7), 7204 (2008), doi:.
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Horie, H.

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “An algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
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Howell, J. N.

C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickmann, “High-Resolution Doppler Lidar for Boundary Layer and Cloud Research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18(3), 376–393 (2001).
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Hu, Y.

Huang, J.

Hunt, B.

Illingworth, A. J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
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Ingram, W. J.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
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Ismail, S.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, and P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9903–9916 (2000).
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Iwasaki, S.

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “An algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
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Kaye, J. A.

G. Asrar, J. A. Kaye, and P. Morel, “NASA research strategy for earth system science: Climate component,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82(7), 1309–1330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R.

G. Vali, R. Kelly, J. French, S. Haimov, D. Leon, R. McIntosh, and A. Pazmany, “Finescale structure and microphysics of coastal stratus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(24), 3540–3564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

B. A. Wielicki, R. D. Cess, M. D. King, D. A. Randall, and E. F. Harrison, “Mission to planet earth: role of clouds and radiation in climate,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76(11), 2125–2154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J.

Kooi, S. A.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, and P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kropfli, R. A.

S. Y. Matrosov, B. W. Orr, R. A. Kropfli, and J. B. Snider, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of cirrus cloud microphysical parameters from Doppler radar and infrared radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 33(5), 617–626 (1994).
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Kuehn, R.

Kumagai, H.

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “An algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
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Kuroiwa, H.

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “An algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laursen, F.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Treut, H.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

LeCornec, A.

P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. C.

P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lenschow, D. H.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lentz, W. J.

Leon, D.

D. Leon, G. Vali, and M. Lothon, “Dual-Doppler analysis in a single plane from an airborne platform. Part I: Technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23(1), 3–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Vali, R. Kelly, J. French, S. Haimov, D. Leon, R. McIntosh, and A. Pazmany, “Finescale structure and microphysics of coastal stratus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(24), 3540–3564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lilly, D. K.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

Lindberg, J. D.

Liu, Z.

Lo, K. K.-W.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Locatelli, J. D.

J. D. Locatelli and P. V. Hobbs, “Fall speeds and masses of solid precipitation particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79(15), 2185–2197 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Loehrer, S. M.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loew, E.

P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lothon, M.

D. Leon, G. Vali, and M. Lothon, “Dual-Doppler analysis in a single plane from an airborne platform. Part I: Technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23(1), 3–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mace, G. G.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Mace, T. A. Ackerman, P. Minnis, and D. F. Young, “Cirrus layer microphysical properties derived from surface-based millimeter radar and infrared interferometer data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D18), 23207–23216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, S. P.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matrosov, S. Y.

S. Y. Matrosov, B. W. Orr, R. A. Kropfli, and J. B. Snider, “Retrieval of vertical profiles of cirrus cloud microphysical parameters from Doppler radar and infrared radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 33(5), 617–626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mcavaney, B. J.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M. J.

McIntosh, R.

G. Vali, R. Kelly, J. French, S. Haimov, D. Leon, R. McIntosh, and A. Pazmany, “Finescale structure and microphysics of coastal stratus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(24), 3540–3564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Measure, E. M.

Meleshko, V. P.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, L.

G. M. Heymsfield, S. W. Bidwell, P. Racette, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, S. Nicholson, W. Boncyk, L. Miller, D. Vandemark, and L. R. Dod, “The EDOP radar system on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(4), 795–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. D.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minnis, P.

G. G. Mace, T. A. Ackerman, P. Minnis, and D. F. Young, “Cirrus layer microphysical properties derived from surface-based millimeter radar and infrared interferometer data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D18), 23207–23216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitrescu, C.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morcrette, J.-J.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. P. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K. K.-W. Lo, B. J. Mcavaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. E. Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, “Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D8), 12791–12794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morel, P.

G. Asrar, J. A. Kaye, and P. Morel, “NASA research strategy for earth system science: Climate component,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82(7), 1309–1330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morley, B.

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neitzel, R.

P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, S.

G. M. Heymsfield, S. W. Bidwell, P. Racette, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, S. Nicholson, W. Boncyk, L. Miller, D. Vandemark, and L. R. Dod, “The EDOP radar system on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(4), 795–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, E. J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, “The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN: A new dimension to space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “An algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olson, W. S.

G. M. Heymsfield, J. M. Shepherd, S. W. Bidwell, W. C. Boncyk, I. J. Caylor, S. Ameen, and W. S. Olson, “Structure of Florida thunderstorms using high-altitude aircraft radiometer and radar observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35(10), 1736–1762 (1996).
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Orr, B. W.

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B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, G. Vali, H. Gerber, A. Bandy, B. Blomquist, J.-L. Brenguier, C. S. Bretherton, F. Burnet, T. Campos, S. Chai, I. Faloona, D. Friesen, S. Haimov, F. Laursen, D. K. Lilly, S. M. Loehrer, S. P. Malinowski, B. Morley, M. D. Petters, D. C. Rogers, L. Russell, V. Savic-Jovcic, J. R. Snider, D. Straub, M. J. Szumowski, H. Takagi, D. C. Thornton, M. Tschudi, C. Twohy, M. Wetzel, and M. C. van Zanten, “Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84(5), 579–593 (2003).
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P. H. Hildebrand, W. C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, “The ELDORA/ASTRAIA Airborne Doppler Weather Radar: High-Resolution Observations from TOGA COARE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(2), 213–232 (1996).
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Tschudi, M.

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C. J. Grund, R. M. Banta, J. L. George, J. N. Howell, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, and A. M. Weickmann, “High-Resolution Doppler Lidar for Boundary Layer and Cloud Research,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18(3), 376–393 (2001).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

WCL system diagram and its zenith pointing installation photo on the UWKA

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The overlap function of the WCL during the ICE-L experiment.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

WCL measurements of a wave cloud: range corrected attenuated backscattering power (a), lidar linear depolarization ratio (b), and profiles of both at time 19:30:34 UTC (c). The horizontal wind direction is from left to right.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

WCL measurements of a marine boundary layer aerosol structure: attenuated backscattering power (top) and lidar linear depolarization ratio (bottom).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

WCL measurements of boundary layer aerosol and clouds during the VOCALS campaign.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Combined WCR and WCL measurements of ice clouds and microphysical properties retrievals: a) up and down WCR reflectivity factor, b) upward WCL attenuated backscattering power, c) WCL retrieved cloud extinction coefficient, d) retrieved IWC profile, f) retrieved Dge profile, f) 2D-C measure ice crystal size distribution in terms of maximum length (number/L/um), and g) comparison of 2D-C estimated IWC with retrieved IWC at ~100m above the King Air.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. WCL System Parameters

Metrics