Abstract

Efficient post-process suppression is demonstrated of spurious Fabry-Pérot oscillations, introduced by multiple cavity effects in transmission spectra measurements of various Bragg grating devices. These devices were fabricated within access waveguides and terminated with cleaved facets. The tool, based on a curve-fitting to an equivalent scattering matrix model, is shown to extract transmission spectra of devices, without a-priori knowledge of their properties. Simple and complex grating structure spectra are successfully extracted and compare well with simulated results. The technique exhibits robust behaviour for varying facet conditions and device geometries, outperforming classical averaging techniques.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. J. Xiao, M.H. Khan, H. Shen, and M.H. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band”, Optics Express,  15, 22, 14467–14475, (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H.I. Smith, , “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides”, Journal Of Lightwave Technology,  19, 12, 1938–1942, (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, and R. M. De La Rue, “Post-Process Removal of Spurious Fabry-Pérot Oscillations Caused by Cleaved Waveguide-Ends”, Journal of Lightwave Technology,  27,, 5, 500–510, (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, “Low-Loss III-V Semiconductor Optical Wave-Guides”, IEEE Journal Of Quantum Electronics,  27, 3, 626–640, (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, “Analysis Of Almost-Periodic Distributed Feedback Slab Wave-Guides Via A Fundamental Matrix Approach”, Applied Optics,  26, 16, 3474–3478, (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Strain and M. Sorel, “Integrated III-V Bragg Gratings for Arbitrary Control Over Chirp and Coupling Coefficient”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters,  20, 22, 1865–1868, (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, and R. M. De La Rue, “Post-Process Removal of Spurious Fabry-Pérot Oscillations Caused by Cleaved Waveguide-Ends”, Journal of Lightwave Technology,  27,, 5, 500–510, (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. J. Strain and M. Sorel, “Integrated III-V Bragg Gratings for Arbitrary Control Over Chirp and Coupling Coefficient”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters,  20, 22, 1865–1868, (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. J. Xiao, M.H. Khan, H. Shen, and M.H. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band”, Optics Express,  15, 22, 14467–14475, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H.I. Smith, , “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides”, Journal Of Lightwave Technology,  19, 12, 1938–1942, (2001).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, “Low-Loss III-V Semiconductor Optical Wave-Guides”, IEEE Journal Of Quantum Electronics,  27, 3, 626–640, (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, “Analysis Of Almost-Periodic Distributed Feedback Slab Wave-Guides Via A Fundamental Matrix Approach”, Applied Optics,  26, 16, 3474–3478, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azan>, J.

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, V.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaurain, A.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Beckx,

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellanca, G.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, and R. M. De La Rue, “Post-Process Removal of Spurious Fabry-Pérot Oscillations Caused by Cleaved Waveguide-Ends”, Journal of Lightwave Technology,  27,, 5, 500–510, (2009).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, D.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campenhout, P.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carballar, A.

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chazelas, J.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Constant, M.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, and R. M. De La Rue, “Post-Process Removal of Spurious Fabry-Pérot Oscillations Caused by Cleaved Waveguide-Ends”, Journal of Lightwave Technology,  27,, 5, 500–510, (2009).
[Crossref]

Decoster, D.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, “Low-Loss III-V Semiconductor Optical Wave-Guides”, IEEE Journal Of Quantum Electronics,  27, 3, 626–640, (1991).
[Crossref]

Duchesne, D.

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupont, S.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, and R. M. De La Rue, “Post-Process Removal of Spurious Fabry-Pérot Oscillations Caused by Cleaved Waveguide-Ends”, Journal of Lightwave Technology,  27,, 5, 500–510, (2009).
[Crossref]

Hastings, J. T.

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H.I. Smith, , “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides”, Journal Of Lightwave Technology,  19, 12, 1938–1942, (2001).
[Crossref]

Kapon, E.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, “Low-Loss III-V Semiconductor Optical Wave-Guides”, IEEE Journal Of Quantum Electronics,  27, 3, 626–640, (1991).
[Crossref]

Khan, M.H.

S. J. Xiao, M.H. Khan, H. Shen, and M.H. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band”, Optics Express,  15, 22, 14467–14475, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.W.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Luyssaert, B.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miska, P.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, T. E.

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H.I. Smith, , “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides”, Journal Of Lightwave Technology,  19, 12, 1938–1942, (2001).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.H.

S. J. Xiao, M.H. Khan, H. Shen, and M.H. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band”, Optics Express,  15, 22, 14467–14475, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivas, L. M.

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakuda, K.

M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, “Analysis Of Almost-Periodic Distributed Feedback Slab Wave-Guides Via A Fundamental Matrix Approach”, Applied Optics,  26, 16, 3474–3478, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

S. J. Xiao, M.H. Khan, H. Shen, and M.H. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band”, Optics Express,  15, 22, 14467–14475, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, H.I.

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H.I. Smith, , “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides”, Journal Of Lightwave Technology,  19, 12, 1938–1942, (2001).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

M. J. Strain and M. Sorel, “Integrated III-V Bragg Gratings for Arbitrary Control Over Chirp and Coupling Coefficient”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters,  20, 22, 1865–1868, (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strain, M. J.

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Strain and M. Sorel, “Integrated III-V Bragg Gratings for Arbitrary Control Over Chirp and Coupling Coefficient”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters,  20, 22, 1865–1868, (2008).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van, J.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, R.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vilcot, J.P.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Wiaux, S.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S. J.

S. J. Xiao, M.H. Khan, H. Shen, and M.H. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band”, Optics Express,  15, 22, 14467–14475, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, “Analysis Of Almost-Periodic Distributed Feedback Slab Wave-Guides Via A Fundamental Matrix Approach”, Applied Optics,  26, 16, 3474–3478, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zegaoui, M.

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

Applied Optics (1)

M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, “Analysis Of Almost-Periodic Distributed Feedback Slab Wave-Guides Via A Fundamental Matrix Approach”, Applied Optics,  26, 16, 3474–3478, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electronics Letters (1)

S. Dupont, A. Beaurain, P. Miska, M. Zegaoui, J.P. Vilcot, H.W. Li, M. Constant, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP submicron optical waveguides fabricated by ICP etching”, Electronics Letters,  40, 14, 865–866, (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Journal Of Quantum Electronics (1)

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, “Low-Loss III-V Semiconductor Optical Wave-Guides”, IEEE Journal Of Quantum Electronics,  27, 3, 626–640, (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technology Letters (1)

M. J. Strain and M. Sorel, “Integrated III-V Bragg Gratings for Arbitrary Control Over Chirp and Coupling Coefficient”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters,  20, 22, 1865–1868, (2008).
[Crossref]

Journal Of Lightwave Technology (1)

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H.I. Smith, , “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides”, Journal Of Lightwave Technology,  19, 12, 1938–1942, (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, and R. M. De La Rue, “Post-Process Removal of Spurious Fabry-Pérot Oscillations Caused by Cleaved Waveguide-Ends”, Journal of Lightwave Technology,  27,, 5, 500–510, (2009).
[Crossref]

Optics Express (2)

S. J. Xiao, M.H. Khan, H. Shen, and M.H. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band”, Optics Express,  15, 22, 14467–14475, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van, P. Campenhout, D. Bienstman, R. Van Thourhout, V. Baets, S. Wiaux, and Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator”, Optics Express,  12, 8, 1583–1591, (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optics Letters (1)

L. M. Rivas, M. J. Strain, D. Duchesne, A. Carballar, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and J. Azan>“Picosecond linear optical pulse shapers based on integrated waveguide Bragg gratings”, Optics Letters,  33, 21, 2425–2427, (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1:

Block diagram of TMM model for a DUT within a Fabry-Pérot cavity.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

(a) SEM image and (b) schematic, of a sidewall grating device.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

(a) Measured, recovered, simulated and shifting window averaging processed transmission spectra, and (b) measured and simulated reflection spectra of an integrated Bragg grating device.

Fig. 4:
Fig. 4:

Recovered transmission spectra of Bragg grating devices, with untreated and AR coated facets, using (a) the TMM curve-fitting method and (b) a shifting window averaging.

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Bragg wavelength and grating coupling coefficients as functions of grating recess depth, with varying facet conditions.

Fig. 6:
Fig. 6:

Schematics of (a) a multi-grating pulse shaping DUT and (b) Non-linearly chirped and apodised grating. (c) Measured, recovered and simulated spectra for the multi-grating DUT and (d) a non-linearly chirped and apodised Bragg grating device.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tsys=ejk(n1L1+n2L2)e(α1L1+α2L2)tf1tf2tbb1+e2L1(jkn1+α1)rf1rbbn+e2L2(jkn2+α2)rf2rbbp
+ej2k(n1L1+n2L2)e2(α1L1+α2L2)rf1rf2(rbbprbbntbb2)
TD=I0 A1 T A2D=A T

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