Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is the first commercial quantum technology operating at the level of single quanta and is a leading light for quantum-enabled photonic technologies. However, controlling these quantum optical systems in real world environments presents significant challenges. For the first time, we have brought together three key concepts for future QKD systems: a simple high-speed protocol; high performance detection; and integration both, at the component level and for standard fibre network connectivity. The QKD system is capable of continuous and autonomous operation, generating secret keys in real time. Laboratory and field tests were performed and comparisons made with robust InGaAs avalanche photodiodes and superconducting detectors. We report the first real world implementation of a fully functional QKD system over a 43dB-loss (150km) transmission line in the Swisscom fibre optic network where we obtained average real-time distribution rates over 3 hours of 2.5bps.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  4. Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre," Opt. Expr. 13,660-665 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Expr. 14,13073-13082 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Branciard, N. Gisin, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Scarani, "Zero-error attacks and detection statistics in the coherent one-way protocol for quantum cryptography," Quant. Inf. Comp. 7,639-664 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  30. M. N. Wegman, L. Carter, "New Hash Functions and Their Use in Authentication and Set Equality," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 22,265-279 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Carter, M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18,143-154 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Zhang, R. T. Thew, J.-D Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550 nm with an Active Quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published), arXiv/0812.2840.

2008

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Although there are still no complete formal security proofs for finite keys, initial efforts in this direction suggest the need for large blocks of data to ensure security, V. Scarani, R. Renner, "Quantum Cryptography with Finite Resources: Unconditional Security Bound for Discrete-Variable Protocols with One-Way Postprocessing," Phys Rev. Lett. 100,200501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Tunable upconversion photon detector," App. Phys. Lett. 93,071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and V. Scarani, "Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 10,013031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Scarani, "Zero-error attacks and detection statistics in the coherent one-way protocol for quantum cryptography," Quant. Inf. Comp. 7,639-664 (2007).

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Expr. 14,13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre," Opt. Expr. 13,660-665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the Photon-Number-Splitting Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, "Quantum Cryptography Protocols Robust against Photon Number Splitting Attacks for Weak Laser Pulse Implementations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,057901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Koashi, "Unconditional Security of Coherent-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Strong Phase-Reference Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,120501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,057901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug&play system," New J. Phys. 4,41.1-41.8 (2002).

1992

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1981

M. N. Wegman, L. Carter, "New Hash Functions and Their Use in Authentication and Set Equality," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 22,265-279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

L. Carter, M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18,143-154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Acín, A.

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, "Quantum Cryptography Protocols Robust against Photon Number Splitting Attacks for Weak Laser Pulse Implementations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,057901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alloing, B.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atsushi, U.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bitauld, D.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Branciard, C.

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and V. Scarani, "Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 10,013031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Scarani, "Zero-error attacks and detection statistics in the coherent one-way protocol for quantum cryptography," Quant. Inf. Comp. 7,639-664 (2007).

Brunner, N.

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, L.

M. N. Wegman, L. Carter, "New Hash Functions and Their Use in Authentication and Set Equality," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 22,265-279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Carter, M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18,143-154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chauvin, N.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Expr. 14,13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Divochiy, A.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Expr. 14,13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.-D

J. Zhang, R. T. Thew, J.-D Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550 nm with an Active Quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published), arXiv/0812.2840.

Gautier, J.-D.

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerardino, A.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and V. Scarani, "Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 10,013031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Tunable upconversion photon detector," App. Phys. Lett. 93,071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Scarani, "Zero-error attacks and detection statistics in the coherent one-way protocol for quantum cryptography," Quant. Inf. Comp. 7,639-664 (2007).

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, "Quantum Cryptography Protocols Robust against Photon Number Splitting Attacks for Weak Laser Pulse Implementations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,057901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug&play system," New J. Phys. 4,41.1-41.8 (2002).

J. Zhang, R. T. Thew, J.-D Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550 nm with an Active Quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published), arXiv/0812.2840.

Gol'tsman, G.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug&play system," New J. Phys. 4,41.1-41.8 (2002).

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halder, M.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiroyuki, S.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W. Y.

W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,057901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Isao, O.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jorel, C.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kazuya, A.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kazuyuki, Y.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koashi, M.

M. Koashi, "Unconditional Security of Coherent-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Strong Phase-Reference Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,120501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kunihito, H.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Expr. 14,13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. H.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H.

H. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lunghi, L.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lütkenhaus, N.

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Scarani, "Zero-error attacks and detection statistics in the coherent one-way protocol for quantum cryptography," Quant. Inf. Comp. 7,639-664 (2007).

Ma, X.

H. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marsili, F.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masaki, I.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masaru, S.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minaeva, O.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okunev, O.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peter, D.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renner, R.

Although there are still no complete formal security proofs for finite keys, initial efforts in this direction suggest the need for large blocks of data to ensure security, V. Scarani, R. Renner, "Quantum Cryptography with Finite Resources: Unconditional Security Bound for Discrete-Variable Protocols with One-Way Postprocessing," Phys Rev. Lett. 100,200501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, "Quantum Cryptography Protocols Robust against Photon Number Splitting Attacks for Weak Laser Pulse Implementations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,057901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug&play system," New J. Phys. 4,41.1-41.8 (2002).

Rochas, A.

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scarani, V.

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and V. Scarani, "Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 10,013031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Although there are still no complete formal security proofs for finite keys, initial efforts in this direction suggest the need for large blocks of data to ensure security, V. Scarani, R. Renner, "Quantum Cryptography with Finite Resources: Unconditional Security Bound for Discrete-Variable Protocols with One-Way Postprocessing," Phys Rev. Lett. 100,200501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Scarani, "Zero-error attacks and detection statistics in the coherent one-way protocol for quantum cryptography," Quant. Inf. Comp. 7,639-664 (2007).

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, "Quantum Cryptography Protocols Robust against Photon Number Splitting Attacks for Weak Laser Pulse Implementations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,057901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre," Opt. Expr. 13,660-665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shigeru, Y.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug&play system," New J. Phys. 4,41.1-41.8 (2002).

Sunao, N.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takayuki, K.

U. Atsushi, A. Kazuya, I. Masaki, H. Kunihito, N. Sunao, S. Hiroyuki, O. Isao, K. Takayuki, S. Masaru, Y. Shigeru, Y. Kazuyuki, and D. Peter, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Phot. 2,728-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Expr. 14,13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Tunable upconversion photon detector," App. Phys. Lett. 93,071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, R. T. Thew, J.-D Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550 nm with an Active Quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published), arXiv/0812.2840.

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vachtomin, Y.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-B.

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the Photon-Number-Splitting Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegman, M. N.

M. N. Wegman, L. Carter, "New Hash Functions and Their Use in Authentication and Set Equality," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 22,265-279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Carter, M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18,143-154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Expr. 14,13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre," Opt. Expr. 13,660-665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Tunable upconversion photon detector," App. Phys. Lett. 93,071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug&play system," New J. Phys. 4,41.1-41.8 (2002).

J. Zhang, R. T. Thew, J.-D Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550 nm with an Active Quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published), arXiv/0812.2840.

Zeller, S. C.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New. J. Phys 8,32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, R. T. Thew, J.-D Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550 nm with an Active Quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published), arXiv/0812.2840.

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nature Phot. 1,343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zinoni, C.

A. Korneev, Y. Vachtomin, O. Minaeva, A. Divochiy, K. Smirnov, O. Okunev, G. Gol'tsman, C. Zinoni, N. Chauvin, L. Balet, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, M. Halder, C. Jorel, and H. Zbinden, "Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13,944-951 (2007).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett.

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Tunable upconversion photon detector," App. Phys. Lett. 93,071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, "Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,201114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Zhang, R. T. Thew, J.-D Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550 nm with an Active Quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published), arXiv/0812.2840.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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