Abstract

We present distributed-feedback Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating in a double-metal ring waveguide. High power collimated emission in a single spectral mode is observed in the vertical direction. A double-slit configuration is employed to achieve both good electrical contacts and efficient power out-coupling. The optical properties of the devices are interpreted with the aid of finite element simulations.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kumar and A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamošinuas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5335–5345 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Sirigu, R. Terazzi, M. I. Amanti, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. A. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5206–5217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar and A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Schubert and F. Rana, “Analysis of Terahertz Surface Emitting Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(3), 257–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamošinuas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5335–5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, A. J. L.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sirigu, R. Terazzi, M. I. Amanti, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. A. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5206–5217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamošinuas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5335–5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamošinuas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5335–5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demichel, O.

Dunbar, L. A.

Faist, J.

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Sirigu, R. Terazzi, M. I. Amanti, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. A. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5206–5217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. A.

Fischer, M.

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J. R.

O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

Green, R.

Hajenius, M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, L. K.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

Hovenier, J. N.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, S.

Khanna, S. P.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klaassen, T. O.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar and A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

Lee, A. W.

Lee, A. W. M.

S. Kumar and A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

Linfield, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineults, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Predictable surface emission patterns in terahertz photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9491–9502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losco, T.

Mahler, L.

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maineults, W.

Marshall, O. P.

O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masselink, W. T.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mauro, C.

Mujagic, E.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nobile, M.

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S.

Pavlov, S. G.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

Rana, F.

M. Schubert and F. Rana, “Analysis of Terahertz Surface Emitting Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(3), 257–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

Ritchie, D. A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamošinuas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5335–5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rungsawang, R.

O. P. Marshall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. R. Freeman, R. Rungsawang, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Surface-emitting photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schartner, S.

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert and F. Rana, “Analysis of Terahertz Surface Emitting Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(3), 257–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

Semenov, A. D.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semtsiv, M. P.

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirigu, L.

Strasser, G.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamošinuas, V.

Terazzi, R.

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sirigu, R. Terazzi, M. I. Amanti, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. A. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5206–5217 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamošinuas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5335–5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, C.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, C. Walther, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Step well quantum cascade laser emitting at 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573–574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei Min Lee, A.

Wienold, M.

E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagić, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzigmann, B.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
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Xu, J.

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J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
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A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
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B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
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J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
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E. Mujagić, S. Schartner, L. K. Hoffmann, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, “Grating-coupled surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011108 (2008).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Kumar and A. W. M. Lee, “Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers and video-rate terahertz imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 333–344 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
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L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2008).
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Nature

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Opt. Express

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamošinuas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5335–5345 (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Spectrum computed for a segment of a ring with 97 periods and a diameter of 960 um. The eigenmode whose field distribution is shown corresponds to the dominant resonance. The distance between two slits is chosen at 30% of the total period. The SEM micrograph shows a few periods of a fabricated grating. (b) Resonance frequencies and radiative efficiencies of the modes with symmetric and asymmetric electric field distribution with respect to the grating, plotted as solid and dashed lines respectively, as a function of slit distance at constant period (segment size). The ring radius in these plots is slightly larger. The resonance at 3.1 THz in panel (a) corresponds to the asymmetric eigenmode. Note the radiative efficiency of the symmetric mode at 10-20%, which would instead vanish in the entire parameter range in the case of a linear infinite grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A SEM picture of a fabricated device. (b) Light-current characteristics of a ring with a diameter of 960 µm, driven with 800 ns pulses at 25 kHz repetition rate. The inset shows a spectrum on a logarithmic scale of the device driven with the above settings at a current of 1.8 A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Computed far-field of the device shown in Fig. 2. The angular position of the rings is determined by d/λ, where d is the ring diameter and λ the free-space wavelength. (b) Measured central portion of the emission far-field. Also shown is a spectrum taken prior to the far-field measurement. The insets show 3D plots of the corresponding panels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured far-field of the same device as in Fig. 2(b), driven with 1.65 A, 330 ns pulses at 90 kHz repetition rate. Data are joined from measurements with different cryostat window positions. Under these pumping conditions, a maximum emission at 11/-18 degrees and a considerable angular spread of the power is observed. The black circle indicates the collection angle of the Golay-cell used for acquisition of the light-current characteristics. The colormap is the same as for Fig. 3. (b) Cross section of the computed far-field of the two modes depicted in Fig. 1(b): symmetric (red) and asymmetric (black). Surprisingly, the asymmetric mode presents a large radiating intensity also far from the vertical direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Light-current characteristics of a ring with a diameter of 990 µm, driven with 800 ns pulses at 12.5 kHz repetition rate. The inset shows a spectrum on a logarithmic scale of the device driven with the above settings at a current of 1.8 A. (b) Measured far-field of the same device. Except for the center ring, the computed far-field of Fig. 3(a) is reasonably reproduced. The non-continuous rings could be due to the bonds covering the grating. The area outside an angle of ~26° (black circle) is shielded by the cryostat window opening. The inset shows a spectrum of the device driven under the same conditions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Electric field along the growth axis computed in a 2D model for the device shown in Fig. 2(a). Slits are suppressed in the location of the bonding pads, and the grating is misaligned by 0.5/-1.5 µm in x/y direction. (b) Corresponding far-field, where the distortions are even stronger than those in the measured far-field (see Fig. 5(b)). (c), (d) Computed far-fields of a device with a grating misaligned by 1 µm in the x-direction, and of a symmetric device with 2 bonding pads on the x-axis respectively. Both deviations from a perfect device qualitatively change the surface emission pattern.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Resonances of segments of the same dimension, computed for two different radial positions of the grating. (b) Far-field of a device with the metallic grating misaligned with respect to the semiconductor ring by 2-3 um. Due to the effect shown in panel (a), the eigenfrequency is not constant along the ring. Indeed, the mode seems to be localized in the lower left part of the ring, thus the far-field is no longer determined by interference, but rather diffraction limited.

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