Abstract

We present a novel intracavity frequency modulation scheme in a tunable, picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The OPO signal wavelength can be modulated with a depth of more than 10 nm at a rate of 38 MHz (one half its repetition rate). We discuss the design and construction of the light source and its application to the recently-developed frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM-CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) techniques. The new light source allows for real time subtraction of the interfering background signal in coherent Raman imaging, yielding images with purely chemical contrast.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. Levenson, W. E. Moerner, and D. E. Horne, “FM spectroscopy detection of stimulated Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 108–110 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, “Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(21), 2535–2538 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).
  9. D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003).
  11. C. L. Tang and J. M. Telle, “Laser modulation spectroscopy of solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(10), 4503–4505 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Telle and C. L. Tang, “New method for electro-optical tuning of tunable lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(2), 85–87 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Cabaret, P. Camus, R. Leroux, and J. Philip, “Intracavity LiNbO(3) Fabry-Perot etalon for frequency stabilization and tuning of a single-mode quasi-continuous-wave titanium:sapphire ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(13), 983–985 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Godard and E. Rosencher, “Energy yield of pulsed optical parametric oscillators: a rate-equation analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 784–790 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. S. Xie, J. Yu, and W. Y. Yang, “Living cells as test tubes,” Science 312(5771), 228–230 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

2006

2004

A. Godard and E. Rosencher, “Energy yield of pulsed optical parametric oscillators: a rate-equation analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 784–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1989

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, “Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(21), 2535–2538 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

1980

1979

B. Levine, C. Shank, and J. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974

C. L. Tang and J. M. Telle, “Laser modulation spectroscopy of solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(10), 4503–4505 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Telle and C. L. Tang, “New method for electro-optical tuning of tunable lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(2), 85–87 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Burfeindt, B.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cabaret, L.

Camus, P.

Cheng, J.-X.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M. C.

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

Fraser, E.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganikhanov, F.

Gleeson, H. F.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Godard, A.

A. Godard and E. Rosencher, “Energy yield of pulsed optical parametric oscillators: a rate-equation analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 784–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J.

B. Levine, C. Shank, and J. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horne, D. E.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kador, L.

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, “Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(21), 2535–2538 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, R.

Levenson, M. D.

Levine, B.

B. Levine, C. Shank, and J. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, “Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(21), 2535–2538 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, W. E. Moerner, and D. E. Horne, “FM spectroscopy detection of stimulated Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 108–110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murray, A. J.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Philip, J.

Piletic, I. R.

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

Potma, E. O.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

A. Godard and E. Rosencher, “Energy yield of pulsed optical parametric oscillators: a rate-equation analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 784–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C.

B. Levine, C. Shank, and J. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

J. M. Telle and C. L. Tang, “New method for electro-optical tuning of tunable lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(2), 85–87 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang and J. M. Telle, “Laser modulation spectroscopy of solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(10), 4503–4505 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Telle, J. M.

C. L. Tang and J. M. Telle, “Laser modulation spectroscopy of solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(10), 4503–4505 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Telle and C. L. Tang, “New method for electro-optical tuning of tunable lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(2), 85–87 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

Xie, X. S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Xie, J. Yu, and W. Y. Yang, “Living cells as test tubes,” Science 312(5771), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. Y.

X. S. Xie, J. Yu, and W. Y. Yang, “Living cells as test tubes,” Science 312(5771), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, R.

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

Ye, J.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, T.

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

Yu, J.

X. S. Xie, J. Yu, and W. Y. Yang, “Living cells as test tubes,” Science 312(5771), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zoro, A.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. M. Telle and C. L. Tang, “New method for electro-optical tuning of tunable lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(2), 85–87 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. Levine, C. Shank, and J. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Godard and E. Rosencher, “Energy yield of pulsed optical parametric oscillators: a rate-equation analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(6), 784–790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. L. Tang and J. M. Telle, “Laser modulation spectroscopy of solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(10), 4503–4505 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. F. Gleeson, A. J. Murray, E. Fraser, and A. Zoro, “An electrically addressed liquid crystal filter for tunable lasers,” Opt. Commun. 212(1-3), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, “Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(21), 2535–2538 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” Proc. SPIE 6442, 64421J (2007).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Xie, J. Yu, and W. Y. Yang, “Living cells as test tubes,” Science 312(5771), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003).

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