Abstract

The complex refractive indices of freshly excised healthy breast tissue and breast cancers collected from 20 patients were measured in the range of 0.15 – 2.0 THz using a portable terahertz pulsed transmission spectrometer. Histology was performed to classify the tissue samples as healthy adipose tissue, healthy fibrous breast tissue, or breast cancers. The average complex refractive index was determined for each group and it was found that samples containing cancer had a higher refractive index and absorption coefficient. The terahertz properties of the tissues were also used to simulate the impulse response functions expected when imaging breast tissue in a reflection geometry as in terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Our results indicate that both TPS and TPI can be used to distinguish between healthy adipose breast tissue, healthy fibrous breast tissue and breast cancer due to the differences in the fundamental optical properties.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz dielectric sensitivity to biomolecular structure and function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 180-190 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, Y. F. He, and A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz measurements of protein relaxational dynamics," Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1605-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Nagel, M. Forst, and H. Kurz, “THz biosensing devices: fundamentals and technology,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(18), S601-S618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taday and D. A. Newnham, “Advances in terahertz pulsed systems brings far-infrared spectroscopy into the spotlight,” Spectroscopy Europe 16, 20–24 (2004).

2003 (2)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” Journal of Molecular Liquids 101, 00093-00094 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, ";Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, E.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosserhoff, A.

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyle, R. D.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucherseifer, M.

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büttner, R.

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, J. M.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, M.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, Y. F. He, and A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz measurements of protein relaxational dynamics," Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1605-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, ";Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, N.

Forst, M.

M. Nagel, M. Forst, and H. Kurz, “THz biosensing devices: fundamentals and technology,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(18), S601-S618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

Handley, J. W.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Y. P.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haring Bolívar, P.

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y. F.

J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, Y. F. He, and A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz measurements of protein relaxational dynamics," Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1605-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoshina, H.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, ";Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” Journal of Molecular Liquids 101, 00093-00094 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knab, J. R.

J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, Y. F. He, and A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz measurements of protein relaxational dynamics," Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1605-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel, M. Forst, and H. Kurz, “THz biosensing devices: fundamentals and technology,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(18), S601-S618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ladner, H. A.

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjar, H.

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz dielectric sensitivity to biomolecular structure and function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 180-190 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, Y. F. He, and A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz measurements of protein relaxational dynamics," Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1605-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, W. J.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, R. E.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, N.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

M. Nagel, M. Forst, and H. Kurz, “THz biosensing devices: fundamentals and technology,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(18), S601-S618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, S.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

P. Taday and D. A. Newnham, “Advances in terahertz pulsed systems brings far-infrared spectroscopy into the spotlight,” Spectroscopy Europe 16, 20–24 (2004).

Oberstein, A.

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otani, C.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfleiderer, A.

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prömpeler, H.

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, F.

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” Journal of Molecular Liquids 101, 00093-00094 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrei, W.

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smye, S. W.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P.

P. Taday and D. A. Newnham, “Advances in terahertz pulsed systems brings far-infrared spectroscopy into the spotlight,” Spectroscopy Europe 16, 20–24 (2004).

Taday, P. F.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. C.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, ";Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. Q.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Zinov’ev, N. N.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinov'ev, N. N.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 1–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz dielectric sensitivity to biomolecular structure and function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 180-190 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laser Appl. (1)

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, "Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?," J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192-198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. Nagel, M. Forst, and H. Kurz, “THz biosensing devices: fundamentals and technology,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(18), S601-S618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Molecular Liquids (1)

C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” Journal of Molecular Liquids 101, 00093-00094 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov’ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26(5), 423–430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences (1)

P. Haring Bolívar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards THz biochips," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 323-335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, ";Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, Y. F. He, and A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz measurements of protein relaxational dynamics," Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1605-1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239(2), 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectroscopy Europe (1)

P. Taday and D. A. Newnham, “Advances in terahertz pulsed systems brings far-infrared spectroscopy into the spotlight,” Spectroscopy Europe 16, 20–24 (2004).

Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

H. Madjar, H. A. Ladner, W. Sauerbrei, A. Oberstein, H. Prömpeler, and A. Pfleiderer, “Preoperative staging of breast cancer by palpation, mammography and high-resolution ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 3(3), 185–190 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. R. Harris, M. E. Lippman, M. Morrow, and K. Osbourne, Diseases of the Breast (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2004), pp. 719–744.

C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “The use of tissue mimicking phantoms in analysing contrast in THz pulsed imaging of biological tissue,” in Conference Digest of the Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves, and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, P. C. H. M. J. Griffin, T. J. Parker, K. P. Wood, ed. (IEEE, Cardiff, UK, 2007), pp. 567–568.

P. Ashworth, P. O’Kelly, A. Purushotham, S. Pinder, M. Kontos, M. Pepper, and V. Wallace, "An Intra-operative THz Probe For Use During The Surgical Removal of Breast Tumors," in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, M. P. Siegel, ed., (IEEE, Pasadena, California, 2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

This figure shows two terahertz images generated using the maximum of the reflected pulse (Emax) and the ratio between maximum and minimum of the reflected pulse (Emax/Emin). In the Emax image all the tissue is shown, tumor with surrounding adipose tissue. In Emax/Emin only the tumor is visible and correlated well with the tumor shown in the histology image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of a TPI spectra1000©

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of a sample holder set up for measuring reference and sample pulses and typical respective pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graphs showing the absorption coefficients and refractive indices of the three tissue types (tumor, fibrous and fat). Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphs showing the difference in absorption (α) and refractive index (n) spectra between tumor and healthy fibrous tissue as a percentage of the healthy fibrous spectra.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Graphs showing the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated impulse functions

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of the average percentage of each tissue classification in groups.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ESER=AeiΔφ.
n=1+cωdΔφ;
α=2dln{(n+nQ)24nnQA}.
Δφ=(n1)dωc.
Δφ1,2=Δφ1+Δφ2.
Δφ1,2=(n11)d1ωc+(n21)d2ωc
Δφ1,2=dωc((n11)d1d+(n21)d2d.
n=1+((n11)d1d+(n21)d2d).
n=n1d1d+n2d2d.
nMeasured=n1d1d+n2d2d+...+nldld.
αMeasured=α1d1d+α2d2d+...+αldld.
rS(ω)=(n^Q(ω)n^S(ω))(n^Q(ω)+n^S(ω)),
rR(ω)=(n^Q(ω)n^0(ω))(n^Q(ω)+n^0(ω)).
n^(ω)=n(ω)ic2ωα(ω)
impulse(t)=iFFT[FFT(filter).rS(ω)rR(ω)],

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